Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine

Knowledge Center

The premier source for news, technical articles and water science features since 1959, WC&P collaborates with the finest authors in the world, including industry experts as well as renowned academic and research institution contributors. To maintain this high level of technical integrity, articles are subjected to vetting by our Technical Review Committee, a group of water treatment industry professionals well known the world over.


Water Softening

Water softening, the reduction of calcium and magnesium from water to lower total hardness, is achieved through the ion exchange process, resulting in significant savings on soap and laundry products as well as increased longevity of appliances (hot water heaters, dishwashers, washing machines) due to reduction of lime scale formation. The process employs a variety of ion exchange resins, depending on the application.

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Reverse Osmosis

Reverse osmosis uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate and remove dissolved solids, organics, pyrogens, sub-micron colloidal matter, viruses and bacteria from water. It is the only treatment process capable of removing a large number of pharmaceutical and personal care product contaminants found in modern day water sources. RO is often used in conjunction with other filtration methods to ensure purity of the water source.


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Filtration, either natural or mechanical, serves as an initial barrier to contaminated water. Methods of filtration can be traced back to the earliest of human recordkeeping, most notably with sand filtration employed as one of the first viable methods. Over time, different media have evolved to become successful contaminant removal products, including multiple types of carbon-based products, zeolites, sphagnum and many others.

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Ion Exchange

Ion exchange is the process by which hardness ions (calcium and magnesium) are exchanged as a means of removal. It is the replacement of undesirable ions with a certain charge by desirable ions of the same charge in a solution, by an ion-permeable absorbent. These resins may be ion-specific, which can target contaminants such as nitrate, sulfate, uranium, arsenic, tannin and many others.

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