Coconut and carbon

Question: Please send me information about the advantages of carbon of coconut shell.

Carlos Criollo

Answer: If you would like to use our Search or “Find” box and/or peruse the Archives on our website for “activated carbon” or “coconut shell,” you will very likely find what you need. In the off chance that an article isn’t posted, you can request it be sent to you via fax. We do not send out articles electronically. Hope that helps.

Ozone and food processing

Question: I need to know the specifications for the water ozone enrichment for rinsing. Thanks for your time.

Hilger Terán
Alimentos Heinz C.A.
Caracas, Venezuela

Answer: In response to your inquiry about ozonation of water for rinsing purposes, I cannot comment on this until I know what it is you are rinsing. Ozone is not only excellent for disinfecting water supplies, but it also oxidizes dissolved material including organics and certain ionic constituents. It has been approved for direct contact with food products for sanitation. Ozonated water has been approved in the United States for use on agricultural products to irradiate potentially harmful contaminants. On June 26, 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final rule on the subject that said: “The FDA amends the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phase as an anti-microbial agent on food including meat and poultry” (see 21 CFR 173.368). Ozone has proven beneficial in food processing, but excess ozone can harm the product or the equipment. You need to know how much ozone and how to control the level to assure ozone is used as a benefit. This is where many end-users are doing their own research at various food processing plants. For instance, with regard to treating lettuce, at a certain ozone level, a head may remain fresher longer—at another, the lettuce may turn brown faster. Many may keep this data to themselves as proprietary information. This is why efforts to establish guidelines through organizations such as the Water Quality Association and International Ozone Association are important.

Desalination at larger scale

Question: I read “RO: New Device Shatters Seawater Conversion Conceptual Barriers” (G.G. Pique, WC&P, July 2000). I wish to process seawater to convert to brine and potable water (at a rate of) 500,000 liter per hour. Any suggestions? Many thanks.

Shrenik H Shah
Gujarat Technical Cell Pvt. Ltd.
Baroda, India

Answer: The most practical technology for this application is reverse osmosis. It is commonly used for seawater desalination, and there are packaged systems available for this size application. Check with a local professional or peruse our online Buyer’s Guide: Hope that helps.

Overdrawing requires new valve for softener

Question: I have a Culligan Mark 50 softener that’s about 20 years old. It has started using excessive salt. I put it on manual recharge and ran it twice with the salt setting on zero pounds of salt. Fifty pounds of salt are gone. The water does not taste salty, so I don’t think it is constantly sucking brine. It’s just using far too much on each cycle. Any thoughts? I hate to pay for a service call only to find out that it cannot be repaired or they tell me parts are no longer available.

Charlie Hofmann

Answer: Sounds like the air check is shot. It’s overfilling and overdrawing. The part should be available. Check with your local dealer.


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