Sizing a community well
Question: Can you identify a regulation or standard that defines the size of small, medium, and large community water wells?
Answer: Large, medium or small communities are defined by the number of connections and, thus, by the overall demand of the community whatever the source. There are other considerations in determining well size, such as redundancy, aquifer yield, pumping capacities and the availability of alternate sources. The water requirements are usually estimated at 150 gallons per capita, this to cover fire protection and commercial needs. In the cases where the sources will not support peak demands, storage must be increased.
Filtration and small systems
Question: I am working on filter systems that use gravity flow to filter water. The systems I am looking for basically utilize a combination of sand, gravel and activated charcoal with a pre-treat with chlorine. I am looking specifically for the order, from top to bottom, how those layers would be installed. Also looking for information as to whether it is advisable to have layers of a membrane between those layers and what those membranes might be made from.
Answer: In any filter, the densest media has to be on the bottom and the lightest media on top, otherwise the media won’t stay in position during backwashing (they’ll wind up classified according to density and particle size anyway). Therefore, the gravel goes on the bottom, sand in the middle and charcoal on top. Any attempt to place a barrier between the layers (coarse mesh netting or screen) is likely to cause more problems than it solves, as these types of devices never stay put. If it’s required, your best bet is a fine mesh screen, either stainless steel or preferably nylon. It may be difficult to keep them from classifying. If your thought about a membrane layer is to provide ultrafine filtration, it would probably not work because you could not get enough pressure from gravity flow to force a reasonable quantity of water through the membrane.