Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine


Friday, February 3rd, 2017

Schwing named Engineer of the Year in Utah

CH2M HILL announced that Vice President Jim Schwing has been named 2012 Engineer of the Year by the American Council of Engineering Companies of Utah. Schwing has been with CH2M HILL for 43 years. During his career, he has been involved in all aspects of engineering project implementation, including management, planning, design and construction of projects in the field of civil and environmental engineering. Schwing is an active member of the Water Environment Association of Utah, serving as the Conference Committee Chair for the past six years.

Haataja to join federal advisory panel

The US Department of Commerce has appointed WQA Executive Director Dave Haataja to represent WQA on the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee. His term began in January 2013 and ends in September 2014. The ETTAC advises the Secretary of Commerce on trade competitiveness facing US providers of environmental solutions and on US programs and policy to expand exports. As Vice President of Operations for Underwriters Laboratories, Haataja worked overseas for seven years. He led the establishment and growth of UL in the Latin America region. Haataja has worked with federal and international agencies and trade associations on legislation and regulation. His responsibilities have also included worldwide profit-and-loss, go-to-market startegy and sales-force and operations management for compliance with environmental regulations in Europe, China, Korea, Japan and the US.

Flynn named Division Director at HaloSource

HaloSource, Inc. appointed Sean Flynn as Division Director, with profitand-loss responsibility for the company’s environmental water business. His responsibilities will include developing business strategy and market channels, establishing and directing a strong field-sales and technical support organization, managing partner relationships and executing against business-growth objectives. Previously, Flynn worked with companies at various stages of development in the clean technology, software, recycling and manufacturing fields, providing legal and business advice. He holds a BA From Duke University and a JD from Georgetown University.

Bennett named LeverEdge President

Robert G. Bennett, CWS-VI, CI, has been named President of The LeverEdge. A 30-year veteran of the water treatment industry, he has been with the company since 2006, most recently as Executive VP. The LeverEdge expects Bennett to lead the 34-year-old company as it continues to expand its presence in the water treatment and solar-thermal markets.

Arsenic Removal: Technologies and Procedures

Friday, December 6th, 2013

By Matthew Wirth

There is more than one way to (blank)…add your own analogy. This is true about many things, including removing arsenic from water. Whether it is ion exchange, RO, adsorption or coagulation/filtration, each method has its limits and standard operating practices (SOP) unique to each technology. Let it be said right now, none are reliable options without scheduled testing and routine preventive maintenance (PM) service. Being acquainted with the rudimentary SOP related to each technology is important before investigating possible corrective actions related to arsenic issues.

Anion exchange
Anion exchange will remove arsenic five, As(V), from water. It does not remove arsenic three, As(III). For anion exchange to work as an option, the arsenic must be in its pentavalent state. If the As is not naturally in the As(V) state, it requires conversion to As(V) by oxidation. Though there are other options for oxidizing As(III) to As(V), the recognized best practice is chlorination. Chlorination is quite effective, but difficult to control on a smaller scale. Because ion exchange (IEx) resin is extremely susceptible to chlorine degradation, the SOP for a system using chlorine, in conjunction with IEx, includes dechlorination prior to the IEx columns. As with any ion exchange technology, anion resin is a mass transfer medium: anions in, with a similar mass of chloride ions out. This technology has an extremely limited throughput and requires frequent regeneration compared to other arsenic options. The SOP for regenerating anion resin in this application is NaCl (salt) @ 8-10lbs/ft3. Check with manufacturers’ specifications for capacity and brining instruction. There are instances where anion exchange works well as a sole treatment. If the competing anions are low in quantity, a strong-base anion resin can have several thousand gallons of capacity per regeneration. This is where a quality analysis helps establish the right technology. If the challenge water has arsenic, but is low in overall total solids, then consider IEx as the technology of choice.

The anion resin does not discriminate. To date, there are no advertised specific arsenicselect IEx resins on the market. The anionic constituents in the water source determine the system’s capacity (throughput). Determining the actual throughput of a specific resin requires a complete water analysis. Be aware that different types of Type I and Type II IEx resins have different selectivity. Common Type I and Type II anion resins prefer sulfate (SO2-4) to As(V). Allowing an anion column to exhaust (overrun capacity) in the presence of SO2-4 can dump or release arsenic from the resin column. The SOP for avoiding this condition is allowing a 20- to 25-percent safety factor in calculating capacity. In addition, the SOP for monitoring this type of technology looks for frequent, if not daily, system checks. In general, if the system does not regenerate, it does not work and can increase arsenic levels as the system exhausts due to SO2-4 loading.1 The SOP has an anion column downstream of a cation column (softener.) Calcium hardness will cause calcium sulfate deposits on the anion resin and reduce its performance. The anion column is commonly larger than the cation column because cation resin, as a rule, has a larger capacity than anion resin on the same water source. Both the cation and anion systems experience resin attrition, with the anion resin commonly suffering a high rate of loss over time. Anion resin is typically less robust than cation resin. Practice PM and audit resin attrition to ensure the system remains functional—and do not run out of salt! Anion exchange offers possibly the most economic option for whole-house arsenic removal, but it requires the highest level of monitoring due to its multiple incidents of failure. The SOP for IEx as an As(V) treatment has a redundant posttreatment (POU adsorption filter, RO, etc.) to protect against possible dumping and system overrun.

Reverse osmosis
Like anion exchange, RO is intended for As(V) removal, not As(III). A functioning RO system removes As(V), but not every POU RO has NSF certification for As(V). Check with the regional regulations to understand POU requirements and check that the system is NSF certified for As before installing the system for As(V) removal. Be aware that NSF certification tests to specific challenge water. As(V) challenge is either 50 ppb (ug/L) or 300 ppb. With liability being part of a level-one constituent removal program, do the due diligence to ensure the use of the correct system.

The SOP requires proper pretreatment upstream of an RO system. Membrane element fouling causes an increased pressure differential (ΔP) across the element. This excess pressure can damage the element’s glue lines, O-rings, etc. The common maximum recommended pressure differential across a 40-inch element is 10 to 15 psi.2 Excess pressure on the membrane element can telescope the element windings (see Figure 1) or split glue lines where the membrane perimeter is glued to envelope the permeate carrier sheet. O-rings break, bulge and leak under pressure stress (Figure 2). Damage to the element seals allows slippage of untreated water into finished water. Apply PM to pretreatment and monitor the ΔP (change in pressure) across the membrane and conductivity of the permeate to ensure system functionality.

Reverse osmosis offers an economic option for treating a single POU faucet. Keeping an entire household or institution drinking from the correct faucet may be the true challenge with a POU approach. POE treatment using RO becomes a more complex project. RO water is aggressive and requires special distribution materials or neutralizing agents to adjust the pH and increase the water’s conductivity. The SOP with either option using RO for As(V) removal includes a PM schedule and routine monitoring of the water’s conductivity to ensure the system is functioning properly. Best practices for preventive maintenance are supplied by a professional water company. Homeowners and janitors are not the first choice as PM contractors. They lack the training and organization structure needed to provide PM for a level-one constituent.

The engineered media used to target arsenic are adsorptive. The common As adsorption media commercially available use iron, titanium and zirconium as host metals for attracting arsenic. Adsorptive means these media collect arsenic on their surfaces. Note: Adsorption means onto, while absorption means into. Most of the media offered today remove both As(III) and As(V). Check the manufacturer’s specification. The SOP dictates that an arsenic speciation be part of planning if one intends to use an engineered media for removing both species of arsenic. These media have a greater capacity to remove As(V) than As(III). The levels of As(III) in the water will dictate the overall throughput of the media and this can be considerably less than if the As is converted to As(V) prior to adsorptive treatment. Note: The best practice for doing a speciation test is to collect the water onsite using a special speciation collection kit. These kits allow the collector to treat the samples onsite to ensure accurate arsenic speciation. Collecting samples and transporting them untreated to a lab can affect the results because As(III) oxidizes and converts to As(V) during transportation. Silica, pH and phosphate are common detractors of media throughput for adsorption. In the presence of pH 7.5, elevated silica shortens bed life. Basically, the silica gets sticky and blinds off the adsorption site on the media material. A lower pH water  (< 7.0) provides a longer bed life and pH water > 8.0 greatly shortens bed life. Phosphate (PO4) is a competing ion with arsenic. Phosphorus (P) is located just above arsenic (As) on the Periodic Table of Elements. They are both in the same family of non-metals and adsorption technologies do not discriminate between the two elements. Therefore, if PO4 is present, especially in high quantities measuring in the ppm range, it drastically reduces the media throughput.

Where pH, silica and/or phosphate are issues, the SOP is to adjust their levels to manufacturers’ recommendations or use a different technology. There are various techniques and options for adjusting the levels of interfering conditions. Best practices with adsorption would have a complete analysis, listing the constituents to proper detection levels recommended by the media manufacturer. In addition, the arsenic should be speciated and the supplier asked to estimate bed life based on existing constituents and following a proposed pretreatment regiment.

Adsorption offers an option for treatment of POE systems and extended run-life if the conditions are favorable for the media. It offers an economic option for high-volume users with the ‘right water.’ Several of the options are regeneration-capable, allowing for multiple use at the original installation site. SOPs would not use regenerated media of an unknown origin at a different site. Most of the adsorption media are okay for landfill disposal. Some media offer little or no backwash requirements, making them excellent for users with waste discharge issue.

Arsenic loves iron. It will easily form ferric arsenate in the presence of ferric iron. This makes coagulation, in conjunction with filtration, an effective method for removing iron. The SOP compensates from 20:1 to 50:1 or higher iron for arsenic. This is because arsenic is not the only customer for the iron present in most waters. Remember PO4? It will use the iron in the same manner as As(III) and As(V). For example, if the water holds arsenic at 20 ppb and PO4 at 30 ppb, then the iron content required to attract a combined 50 ppb at 20:1 is 1,000 ppb or one part per million.

One of the first municipal arsenic treatment plants put into service was in Fallon, NV. With arsenic levels as high as 160 ppm, US EPA required Fallon to install treatment.3 The Fallon systems, along with other municipal systems, utilize iron-based coagulants. These systems work by adding coagulants, such as ferric chloride, to the water. Often, there is not enough natural iron present in the water to accommodate the levels of arsenic and other iron-using constituents. The arsenic adsorbs onto positively charged ferric hydroxide particles. In Fallon, microfiltration removes these particles from the water before it goes to distribution. Other systems will utilize backwashing multi-media or catalytic media horizontal or vertical filters. The SOP recommends full-time monitoring of large systems using coagulation and filtration to ensure the coagulant ration is correct and that the filters are functioning effectively. Coagulation with filtration is a very economical method for treating arsenic water. This assumes that waste discharge is not an issue and that qualified monitoring exists. Feeding coagulant correctly and keeping large filters operational is not a project for novices.

While there are successes using residential oxidizing iron filtration equipment for the removal of arsenic, these applications should include aggressive PM schedules. In addition, complete and comprehensive testing is just as important with coagulation/filtration as adsorption—or any of the other technologies. The best standards of practice do not rely on homeowners for monitoring complex systems. There is always risk involved when accepting responsibility for protecting others from possible harm. The forget rate among homeowners is high when it comes to monitoring water treatment systems, but their memories are quite good when it comes to laying blame. Be careful out there.


  1. Michaud, C.F. (2013), Personal discussions.
  2. https://knowledgecentral.gewater.com
  3. http://news.pall.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=4215

About the author
Matthew Wirth, Technical Advisor and Trainer for Pargreen Water Technologies (www.pargreen. com), is a second-generation water professional with over three decades in the industry. He received engineering training at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD and also earned a BA Degree in organizational management and communications from Concordia University, St. Paul, MN. In addition, Wirth holds a Water Conditioning Masters License in the State of Minnesota. A contributing author to WC&P, he is also a member of its Technical Review Committee. Wirth can be contacted via email, mwirth@pargreen.com or phone, (630) 443-7760.

Merry Christmas and goodbye 2013!

Friday, December 6th, 2013

Kurt C. Peterson, Publisher

“Things are better than they were in 2012.” “It was worse than 2012.” “It hasn’t been better since 2006 and it probably won’t be for years to come.” All of these comments have been heard over the past few months, depending on which conference or exhibition was attended. For some markets, business marched on, quietly making small gains and allowing companies to hold their own. But the broader picture is what is still on everyone’s mind. While gains may have been made in some niche markets, the lack of growth in the US economy, and the fear that it will continue, has been the poke in the eye everyone wanted to avoid.

We’re dreamers, first and foremost, until we hit the reality of adulthood. Those who don’t lose the ability to dream are the innovators, movers and shakers. But how to dream of the next big thing when you’re mired in red ink and have few future prospects? It takes guts and lots more work than ever before to make a difference. Overcoming odds that are not of your making is the unfairest part of the equation but the result is being able to say: “We did it, in spite of a collapsed economy, government failures and onerous legislation!”

We cover one of those success stories in this issue, noting Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation’s golden anniversary. The groundwater industry also measures some successes over the past year, as we report in our coverage of the California Groundwater Association’s 65th annual convention. PWQA’s annual convention is a perennial success story, as we note in a recap of their October event. Also in this issue, C.F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud completes his series on hydrodynamic design and our newest Technical Reviewer Matt Wirth addresses arsenic issues, while Dr. Kelly Reynolds gives us her insight on Legionella in US water systems.

The end of the year is also the time to celebrate. And while many are suffering the doldrums about their still-not-improving prospects, taking the time to step back and embrace the family during the holidays can add a lot to how we look toward next year. So march on, water soldiers! There’s more at stake now and we can’t afford to fail either our customers or ourselves. Here’s to the stalwarts and dreamers, a toast to everyone who has made this industry continue to perform well in spite of all the difficulties. May your Christmas be bright and beautiful and your New Year celebration be marked with hope and confidence!


PWQA: Advancing Water Treatment Goals One Conference at a Time

Friday, December 6th, 2013

By Denise M. Roberts

Several words come to mind when describing the Pacific Water Quality Association’s 56th Annual Convention and Trade Show, which was held October 8-11 in beautiful (downtown?) Burbank, CA: fun, festive and merry, as exhibitors and visitors happily took part in trade show floor activities, dinner events and a repeat favorite, Casino Night. Outgoing President Joyce Takeda offered words of support for incoming President John Foley and thanked everyone for their support during her tenure. The crowd was happily entertained during the annual Banquet Dinner and Industry Awards by Joe Valeri, and everyone was suitably impressed with his skill and talent as a musician. In addition, the association honored several members for their special and continued service to the industry and the organization. Pam and Jon Pomeroy were inducted into the PWQA Hall of Fame; California Assembly Member Luis Alejo was named Legislator of the Year and Special Service Awards were bestowed on Quality Home Services, Water Techniques and CRH California Water, Inc. Clifford Fasnacht and Mark Felton were honored with the Robert Gans Award and Dana Nichol received the Sidney Solomon Award.

Casino Night was a phenomenal success. The silent auction previous years was reorganized as a special Opportunity Raffle. There were so many fantastic items that some attendees had a hard time deciding on which to ‘spend’ their raffle tickets. Winners included C.R. Hall, Bill Hanson, Janell Cedarstrom-Wysocki, Kathy Armenteros, Courtney Hanson, Craig Bybee, Mark Nolan, Ron Reuf, Tracy Strahl, Diane Ergler, Terry Heckman, Chubb Michaud and Ken Schaeffer. The golf tournament, sponsored by Cargill Salt, featured the usual suspects and a good time was had by all. Winners included First Place team members John Miller, John Huerkins, Jeff Coody and Mike Conte; Second Place with Steve Bloemeke, John Brooks, John Foley and Peter Pak and Chuck Rodent winners Mike Mecca, Marty Jessen, Peggy Blazek and Craig Bybee. Men’s and Women’s Closest to the Pin winners were Mike Mecca and Peggy Blazek, respectively, while Brian Good took Longest Drive honors. Many well-attended educational seminars were held, in addition to Tech Talk presentations on the trade show floor. Pete Conaty, PWQA’s lobbyist, offered an in-depth overview of the current legislative climate in California that has had a far-reaching impact. WQA presented its Basics of Water Treatment training program and WQA certification exams. There was truly something for everyone, exhibitor and visitor alike, and there was a consensus throughout that the industry was movingin the right direction. Being a smaller association, PWQA has consistently served the dealers, manufacturers and distributors in a manner expected of a much larger organization. This year’s event was no exception.

Now is the time to start planning for the 57th Annual Convention and Trade Show, which will be held September 30 through October 3, 2014 at the Town and Country Resort and Convention Center in San Diego, CA. Keep an eye out for updates as more information becomes available. Go, PWQA!

Testing POU RO Systems for Pentavalent Arsenic Reduction

Friday, December 6th, 2013

By Rick Andrew

Arsenic is a naturally occurring mineral that globally on average makes up about 1.5 parts per million of the earth’s crust. As such, it is the 53rd most abundant element. Because it is present naturally in the earth’s crust, it can enter into groundwater. Many North American consumers have no worries about arsenic in drinking water, as surveys of US drinking water indicate that about 80 percent of drinking water supplies have less than two ug/L of arsenic. There are some North American consumers, however, who do have health issues related to drinking water and arsenic because two percent of US drinking water supplies exceed 20 ug/L of arsenic. These issues arise from documented, potential adverse effects of arsenic on human health.

Prolonged exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at concentrations above 300 ug/L can cause stomach and intestinal irritation, including stomach ache, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Other effects of oral consumption of inorganic arsenic may include decreased production of red and white blood cells. This condition can lead to abnormal heart rhythm, blood-vessel damage, fatigue and impaired nerve function. In addition to these effects of arsenic consumption, probably the most characteristic effect of long-term oral exposure to inorganic arsenic is skin damage. The skin can develop dark spots and discoloration, and corn or wart-like areas can appear on hands, feet and other areas. These corn or wart-like areas have the potential to develop into skin cancer. Oral ingestion of arsenic may also increase the risk of lung, liver, bladder, prostate or kidney cancer. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that inorganic arsenic is a known carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen. And, US EPA and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have classified inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen.

On January 22, 2001, US EPA adopted a new standard of 10 ug/L as a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic, replacing the previous MCL of 50 ug/L. Public water systems were required to comply with the 10 ug/L MCL by January 23, 2006. This new regulation forced many communities to upgrade the treatment of their public drinking water supplies. Additionally, many private well owners were suddenly faced with the fact that their well water did not meet the new MCL for arsenic. Not only were these consumers dealing with health concerns regarding the levels of arsenic in their well water, but they also have encountered difficulties in selling their homes because of the arsenic.

Small communities and individual well owners alike need proven POU technologies and products to help them treat drinking water contaminated with arsenic. This need for proven arsenic reduction performance in POU water treatment devices is addressed by several of the NSF/ANSI Drinking Water Treatment Unit (DWTU) Standards including NSF/ANSI 58 for POU RO systems.

Figure 1. Example of consumer arsenic fact sheet from NSF/ANSI 58

NSF/ANSI 58 and POU RO systems
Arsenic exists in water primarily in two forms: trivalent arsenic and pentavalent arsenic. POU RO systems are much more effective for treating pentavalent arsenic than trivalent arsenic. This does not mean that RO cannot be used to treat trivalent arsenic. In fact, a free chlorine residual will oxidize trivalent arsenic to pentavalent arsenic with minimal contact time. Oxidation of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent arsenic can also be accomplished using ozone or potassium permanganate. The oxidized pentavalent arsenic can then be effectively treated by the RO system.

NSF/ANSI 58 does not include a test method or a claim for trivalent arsenic reduction. Keeping in mind that water supplies contaminated with arsenic can include either trivalent arsenic, pentavalent arsenic or both, the standard requires that education be provided to consumers. This education is provided in the form of an arsenic fact sheet that describes differences between trivalent and pentavalent arsenic, and the need for effective oxidation of any trivalent arsenic that may be present in their water source prior to RO treatment (see Figure 1 for an example of the consumer arsenic fact sheet required by NSF/ANSI 58). The test protocol includes chlorine-free deionized water with sodium chloride added to achieve a concentration of 750 mg/L.

Pentavalent arsenic, in the form of sodium arsenate, heptahydrate (Na2HAsO4•7H2O), is added to make up a challenge water containing 300 ug/L pentavalent arsenic. Two test POU RO systems are operated for seven days and multiple samples of influent and effluent are collected throughout that period to evaluate system performance. The test systems must reduce the arsenic so that the arithmetic mean of all product water sample results and 90 percent of the individual product water samples are less than or equal to 10 ug/L, which is the MCL for arsenic. Alternatively, a 50 ug/L challenge of pentavalent arsenic may be used instead of the 300 ug/L. The rationale for the 50 ug/L challenge level is that consumers of water from supplies that were previously in compliance with the 50 ug/L arsenic MCL would be able to choose systems that have been demonstrated to treat water at that level or below to the new requirement of 10 ug/L.

Solutions for consumers through POU
The US federal government promulgated a new maximum contaminant level for arsenic in 2006. With this new regulation, many consumers were faced with issues of non-compliance, as well as concerns about possible health impacts. In addition to being a health concern, arsenic contamination of private wells can be a financial concern for those seeking to sell their homes. (Mortgage lenders in affected areas of Michigan are requiring arsenic analyses on private wells prior to approving loans.) The POU/POE industry saw this need and developed products to meet it. They worked with other stakeholders to make sure the NSF/ANSI standards for POU and POE products adequately addressed the situation. Once again, the POU/POE industry was proactive and successful in serving consumers, helping them to improve their health, conform to regulatory requirements and add value to their property.

About the author
Rick Andrew is NSF’s Director of Global Business Development–Water Systems. Previously, he served as General Manager of NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Units (POU/POE), ERS (Protocols) and Biosafety Cabinetry Programs. Andrew has a Bachelor’s Degree in chemistry and an MBA from the University of Michigan. He can be reached at (800) NSF-MARK or email: Andrew@nsf.org


Friday, December 6th, 2013

Gledhill named Blue-White CEO

Blue-White Industries’ Board of Directors and stockholders have elected Robin Gledhill to the position of President and CEO. He began his Blue-White career over 40 years ago, while still attending college, in the metering pump division, eventually moving into the Sales and Marketing  Department, where he became Blue-White’s International Sales Manager.
After many years of working closely with representatives and distributors on both a domestic and international level, he was elected company President in 1997. Gledhill’s product knowledge, interest in product development and improvement, and respect for all customers and employees, combined with exceptional business and management skills, made him the obvious choice for Blue-White’s CEO position.

NSPF instructors honored

Nine certified instructors with nonprofit National Swimming Pool Foundation® (NSPF) were recognized for exceptional performance and commitment to work together to keep pools safer, healthier and open. Robert R. Freligh (Nationwide Aquatic Consulting, Chestertown, NY) earned his award for the most certified individual ever by an NSPF Instructor. Taylor White (Langley and Taylor Pool Corp, Nashville, TN) set a record for the number of students who earned CPO® certification through his classes. Scott Ford (Tropical Aquatics Pool Education, Dunedin, FL) was honored for teaching and certifying the most number of pool professionals during the year. Connie Centrella (Connie Centrella Consulting, LLC, Nashville, TN) was recognized as the greatest supporter of the Pool Operator Primer™ online program. Instructors Phil Reynolds, Steve Lintz and Michael Freeman (Swim Pool & Spa Consultants, Reno, NV) received a Pool Math™ Workbook award for assisting in teaching for the company, which set a record for the number of students who have purchased and used this helpful educational tool. Shane Anthony Ince (Aquatics Information, Moana, Adelaide, South Australia) was recognized for his dedication to pool operator training, having certified the most individuals through the CPO certification program outside the US. Humberto Abaroa-Lance, Director of Education, (Asociacion de  Profesionales de la Piscina, A.C., Mexico City, Mexico) accepted an award on behalf of his association for the most certified with the Spanish CPO certification program.

Mills promoted, Garcia named to WaterGroup team

WaterGroup’s Brian Mills will become the Global Director of Sales, assuming full control of all of WaterGroup’s worldwide sales activities based out of the Ontario headquarters. He will manage both the independent and wholesale sides of the business with both agents and company sales representatives reporting to him. Mills brings a strong background in water treatment sales, service and marketing from his most recent role as Director of Sales in Canada for WaterGroup and his prior experience running his own water treatment company.

Annette Garcia has joined the company as the California Regional Account Manager, responsible for outside sales in the state of California, focusing on the company’s independent water dealers in that market. She has 10 years of water treatment experience working as a Sales Representative, where her forte was servicing and developing large domestic and international customers. In this new role, Garcia will report directly to Mills.



Day appointed at Carbon Resources

Jessica Day has joined Carbon Resources as a member of its Sales and Marketing Department. She brings with her a great sense of professionalism, along with tremendous experience in customer relations and small business development. Day has had many proven successes throughout her career, including building profitable private practice medical groups throughout the West coast, increasing business profits while reducing costs and debt with efficiency audits and greatly improving customer service rankings by introducing modern strategies to traditional approaches. She will be assisting the marketing team with inside sales and customer support as well as focusing on other marketing efforts.

Russell, Ousley appointed at Water-Right

Water-Right, Inc. announced the addition of Mark Russell, CWS-I, as Regional Sales Manager for the west coast (Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, Arizona, Wyoming, Nevada and Utah) and the appointment of Todd Ousley as their new Field Manager, Clear Choice Water Group. Russell has over 13 years of water treatment industry experience. Prior to joining Water-Right, he served as President and GM of Water Tech Industries and most recently was GM for Hanson’s Water Treatment. He will be responsible for providing sales and technical service training, program guidance and day-today general business needs for existing customers. Russell holds a Bachelor’s Degree in economics from Brigham Young University.

Ousley has more than 25 years of experience in the water treatment industry, beginning in sales and management for an independent, multiplesite franchised dealer and having held various regional and national positions with Culligan and US Filter. He brings with him hands-on sales, sales training, sales management and dealer development experience to the company’s professional level dealer
channel. Ousley has spent the last seven years in executive positions within the computer software industry. He will be responsible for sales training and developing sales and dealer-directed programs.

Daigger named to WERF board

CH2M HILL announced Dr. Glen Daigger, International Water Association President and CH2M HILL Chief Technology Officer, has been selected to join the Water Environment Research Foundation’s  (WERF) Board of Directors. He is recognized worldwide as an expert in wastewater treatment technologies, especially the use of biological processes. Daigger has been involved with WERF and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) for years, serving as Chair of several committees. He was named a WEF Fellow in 2012. Daigger will officially begin his Board of Director role in December. He was also recently appointed co-Chair for the Science and Technology Commission, a new focus of the 7th World Water Forum (WWF).

New IDA President, awardee named

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, PhD, Deputy Governor for Planning and Development of Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia, has been named President of the association for the 2013-2015 term. Emilio Gabbrielli, Vice President Business Development of Toray Membrane, has been named 1st Vice President and Miguel Angel Sanz, Director of Development and Innovation of Degrémont, 2nd Vice President. Al-Alshaikh holds a BS Degree in civil engineering from King Saud University, Saudi Arabia and a Master of Engineering Degree in civil engineering from Pennsylvania State University, State College. In 2004, he was awarded a doctorate in business administration by Hull University, UK. Jim Birkett, PhD, was presented a Lifetime Achievement Award recognition of his extensive contributions in the fields of desalination and water reuse. The award was conferred at the IDA World Congress 2013 in Tianjin. He has more than four decades of experience in the study of desalination, advanced water treatment and membrane separation industries and technologies and was the first elected President of IDA. Birkett continues to consult, lecture and publish widely in his fields of interest. He is a graduate of Bowdoin College, where he earned his BA Degree and Yale University, from which he received his MS and PhD
Degrees in physical chemistry.

NGWA award winners announced

The National Ground Water Association announced the winners of its annual awards. They are: Steve Maslansky of Prescott, Individual Safety Advocate Award; City of Phoenix, Groundwater Supply Award; ARCADIS, Groundwater Protection and Groundwater Remediation Awards; Ron Peterson, Baroid Industrial Drilling Products, Ross L. Oliver Award; Chunmiao Zheng, University of Alabama, M. King Hubbert Award; Arthur E. Becker, Robert Storm Interdivisional Cooperation Award; Gregory Buffington, Layne Christensen Co., Dr. Leonard Konikow, USGS, Evan Nyer, NGWA Life Member Awards; Michael Gefell, ARCADIS, Technology Award and John Selker, PhD, Oregon State University and Scott Tyler, PhD, University of Nevada Reno, John Hem Award for Excellence inScience & Engineering.

WEF Trustees named

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) announced members of its 2013-2014 Board of Trustees as confirmed by WEF’s House of Delegates during WEFTEC® 2013. In October, the WEF ‘gavel of leadership’ was passed from President Cordell Samuels (Pickering, Ontario, Canada) to incoming President Sandra Ralston, an Associate Vice President with ARCADIS in Charleston, SC. During her term, Ralston will continue to help fulfill WEF’s three critical objectives—to drive innovation in water, enrich the expertise of water professionals and raise public awareness of the value of water—in part by calling on WEF members to be unified in purpose. In addition to President Ralston, the 2013-2014 Board of Trustees includes Immediate Past President Samuels; President-Elect Ed McCormick (Oakland, CA); Vice-President Paul Bowen (Atlanta, GA); Treasurer Rick Warner (Reno, NV); Secretary and Interim Executive Director Eileen O’Neill (Alexandria, VA) and Trustees Charles Bott (Hampton Roads, VA), Fran Burlingham (Walnut Creek, CA), Ralph Exton (Trevose, PA), Jenny Hartfelder (Denver, CO), Tom Kunetz (Chicago, IL), Garry Macdonald (Auckland, New Zealand), George Martin (Greenwood, SC) and Erin Mosley (Boston, MA.).




Deadly Legionella: Commonly Found in US Water Systems

Friday, December 6th, 2013

By Kelly A. Reynolds, MSPH, PhD

While advances in water treatment practices and regulatory treatment guidelines have led to a dramatic reduction in waterborne outbreaks, additional public health challenges relative to drinking water continue to be identified. Legionella is the most commonly reported pathogen in US waterborne outbreaks and responsible for nearly all waterborne deaths in the US from 2009-2010. Controlling this widespread environmental pathogen is not easy; however, POU solutions are available and effective if properly applied.

A definitive hazard
Legionella is a genus of bacteria that can cause illness known as legionellosis. Symptoms are manifested in two distinct categories: the more severe pneumonia known as Legionnaire’s disease and the milder, flu-like illness known as Pontiac fever. While Pontiac fever typically resolves on its own, Legionnaire’s disease often results in hospitalization and sometimes death. Although Legionnaire’s disease can be treated with antibiotics, five to 15 percent of cases still result in fatal outcomes. Legionellae are free-living, ubiquitous freshwater inhabitants and are commonly recovered from drinking water sources and tap water systems. The bacteria are spread via aerosolized water and have been traced to misters, cooling towers, humidifiers, fountains and showers. Originally linked to an epidemic of fatal pneumonia in a population of war veterans attending an American Legion convention in Philadelphia, PA, in 1976, Legionella now causes an estimated 8,000 to 18,000 hospitalization events per year in the US. Exposure is usually via inhalation of contaminated water droplets and is not transmitted from person to person. Pneumonia is still a primary cause of infection related deaths in the US. About half of all community-acquired pneumonia worldwide in adults and up to 75 percent of hospital acquired pneumonia are due to unknown etiological agents. Legionella and other emerging waterborne respiratory pathogens are thought to cause a significant portion of these infections, as they are commonly present in water supplies but difficult to grow from clinical samples. The true public health impact of free-living amoebae in drinking water are not known, but on average they are detected at the tap water point of use at a rate of 45 percent.

Helper amoebae
Legionella in tap water systems are able to proliferate and may resist disinfectant treatments due to association with protective biofilms or natural hosts. Disinfectant levels capable of killing bacteria in water are not effective for elimination of many protozoa. Legionella can actually grow within free-living amoeba, where they are protected from disinfectants and escape detection and effective treatment. Studies have shown that bacteria proliferation and virulence is enhanced in the presence of amoebae and that biofilms form rapidly in mixtures of amoebae and bacteria together.

Essentially, bacteria such as Legionella use amoeba as not only a protective environment but also as a food source, further enhancing their growth and persistence in drinking water systems. One survey of free-living amoebae in environmental source waters found that 62 percent of surface water samples and 71 percent of groundwater samples tested positive. These amoebae are also commonly isolated from treated water supplies and distribution systems. Organic matter content, temperature, sediment and biofilms are environmental variables likely to affect free-living amoebae and subsequently, bacterial pathogen populations.

*All water systems involved were community water supplies. Modified from CDC, 2013.

Waterborne outbreaks
In terms of waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water, Legionella is now the primary etiological agent, accounting for 58 percent (19/33) of the outbreaks during the most recent published survey period (2009-2010). In most of these reported events, Legionella was detected in the localized plumbing systems. Ultimately, these Legionella outbreaks resulted in 72 illnesses, 58 hospitalizations and eight deaths (see Table 1). Further, Legionella caused an additional seven outbreaks, resulting in 99 illnesses and six deaths from other non-recreational waterborne exposures, including cooling towers, a mist/steam device, an ornamental fountain and other unknown water sources from chronic care facilities.

Legionella again made headlines in February 2013 following the death of five, and possibly six, patients in the Veterans Affairs Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA. Genetically, the bacteria from the more recent outbreak were nearly identical to isolates from a 1982 outbreak in the same facility. The 1982 outbreak resulted in 100 cases of Legionnaire’s disease over a three-year period, resulting in approximately 30 deaths. The fact that the strains from the 1982 and 2013 outbreaks were so similar indicates that the harmful bacteria persisted in the hospital’s water pipes for decades, despite efforts to purge the organism with hot water flushes, chemical disinfectants and installation of antibacterial pipes.

Treatment options
Control of Legionella in water is particularly difficult given its ability to grow in distribution systems and premise plumbing of hospitals, commercial buildings and residences. Areas requiring control are often outside US EPA’s jurisdiction for water quality monitoring and treatment. Preventing Legionella exposures requires a comprehensive water safety plan. The World Health Organization published a white paper in 2007 on how to monitor and control for Legionella in a variety of systems. Specific mitigation strategies include: excluding the microbe from entering water systems; preventing growth by controlling nutrient levels, temperature and stagnation; controlling amoeba and using a biocide. Common Legionella control strategies are to hyperchlorinate (>two ppm residual concentration) distribution and premise plumbing systems and to superheat (>160°F) and flush the system. POU treatment techniques such as UV disinfection and filters rated for removal of bacteria are effective barriers and recommended to minimize at-risk population exposures to Legionella from faucets and showerheads. Such prevention measures are essential for reducing the number of Legionella outbreaks in the US and worldwide.


  1. Mandell, L.A.; Wunderink, R.G.; Anzueto A., et al. “Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults,” Clinical Infectious Disease, vol. 44 (Suppl 2), pp. S27-S72, 2007.
  2. Lamoth, F. and Greub, G. “Amoebal pathogens as emerging causal agents of pneumonia,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 34, pp. 260-280, 2010.
  3. Thomas, J.M.; Ashbolt, N.J. “Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 860-869, 2011.
  4. Fraser, D.W.; Tsai, T.R.; Orenstein, W. et al. “Legionnaires’ disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 297, pp. 1189-1197, 1977.
  5. Marciano-Cabral, F.; Jamerson, M.; Kaneshiro, E.S. “Free-living amoebae, Legionella and Mycobacterium in tap water supplied by a municipal drinking water utility in the USA,” Journal of Water and Health, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 71-82, 2010.
  6. Loret, J.F.; Greub, G. “Free-living amoebae: Biological by-passes in water treatment,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 213, no. 3, pp. 167-175, 2010.
  7. CDC, “Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water and Other Nonrecreational Water–United States, 2009–2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 714-720, 6 September 2013.
  8. Smeltz, A.; Fábregas, L.; Wereschagin, M. “Legionnaires’ bacteria in VA water system tracked to 1982,” Tribune-Review, 23 February 2013.
  9. WHO, Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2007.

About the author
Dr. Kelly A. Reynolds is an Associate Professor at the University of Arizona College of Public Health. She holds a Master of Science Degree in public health (MSPH) from the University of South Florida and a doctorate in microbiology from the University of Arizona. Reynolds is WC&P’s Public Health Editor and a former member of the Technical Review Committee. She can be reached via email at reynolds@u.arizona.edu

Hydrodynamic Design, Part 11: The Water Hammer

Friday, December 6th, 2013

By C.F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud, CWS-VI

Shutting a valve off too quickly downstream from a pump can produce an effect known as a water hammer (hydraulic shock) that can damage tanks and appliances with very high hydraulic pressure or vacuum development caused by the momentum of the moving fluid. We have all heard banging and rattling of pipes that result from it. Now we will look at ways to prevent it.

A one-inch pipe having a length of 100 feet contains four gallons of water weighing almost 34 pounds. If water is flowing in that pipe at 10 feet per second (a common design level) and a downstream valve is suddenly shut off, water hammer develops, sending the instantaneous shock wave of water pressure as high as 1,000 psi (or even higher). The shock wave that develops travels at the speed of sound (at 70°F, that’s over 4,800 ft/sec) and travels backwards until it hits something solid—a pump, a check valve or a filter tank), then forward and back, until the energy is dissipated.18 Such a spike can explode a media or cartridge filter causing serious flood damage and a liability headache for the manufacturer, seller, installer and everyone in between. The pressure spikes because water is an incompressible fluid. When it stops dead in its tracks by the rapid closure of a valve, the momentum has to go somewhere. There will be a spike in the upstream pressure along with a vacuum created in the downstream side of the valve. There is both an explosive and implosive force developed and both are equally damaging. The effects are accentuated if the pipe slopes downhill. Water hammer can also be caused by the sudden change of direction in a plumbing system or the introduction of fluid to a previously empty pipe by flipping on a pump.

I have seen 12-inch PVC explode when a 2,000-gpm pump was turned on, sending water into an empty pipe at a very high rate of flow (there was no length of pipe or filter bed filled with water to present any back pressure, just air) and then it came to the first 90-degree turn. Kablooie! Every foot of that pipe contained nearly six gallons of water weighing almost 50 pounds. Moving at 25 feet/second in the empty pipe and making a run of nearly 100 feet, that elbow was hit with 5,000 pounds of mass that suddenly had to change direction. That elbow shattered into small pieces taking most of the piping support structure and part of a cinder block wall with it.

Calculating the hammer
There is a simple equation for calculating the pressure spike inside a pipe as a result of water hammer (see Equation 6).18

Equation 6. Calculation for determining the effects of water hammer

Pwh = (0.07VL)/t + Pi, where:
Pwh = the pressure resulting from the water hammer
(0.07) is a conversion constant
V = the change in velocity of the liquid in the pipe
L = the upstream pipe length
t = the valve closing time
Pi = the inlet pressure of the fluid (before water hammer)
Example: Let’s calculate the effects of closing a valve in eight
seconds against water flowing at 10 ft/sec in a 500-foot run of
pipe with a static pressure of 80 psi.
Pwh = (0.07)(10)(500) + (80) = 123.75 psi.
The water hammer increased pressure by 44 psi.
Now let’s repeat this with a rapid closing valve (0.5 seconds).
Pwh = (0.07)(10)(500) + (80) = 780 psi.
The water hammer increased pressure by 700 psi.

A linear flow of 10 ft/sec in a one-inch pipe represents a volumetric flow of 24.3 gpm. This would be considered very high flow and a 500-foot run would not be the usual for residential or even commercial situations but a long run in an industrial plant or a farm would be common.

Note: Equation 6 assumes an incompressible fluid and a non-elastic pipe or container. The results for pressure are in psi. For metric systems, the pressure is in pascals (Pa), the velocity is in meters/sec, length is in meters and the conversion constant is 0.0135.

Do water hammers pose a threat?
Most pipe and filter tanks are rated for 125 psi operational pressure and exhibit actual burst values of around 600 psi. While they may survive mild hydraulic shocks and simply make noise, they will not survive severe water hammer. It is not a matter of simply replacing the broken component. A break under pressure can cause extensive water damage to surrounding equipment, damage floors, walls and ceilings plus the filters themselves. In the case of my 12-inch PVC pipe experience, the damage can include personal injury and worse! Civil engineering with long delivery runs and large flows at the municipal level and power plants are particularly concerned with the negative effects of hydraulic shock. There is an entire science devoted to calculating ways to control flows in order to minimize shock issues.

Column separation
When a valve is closed suddenly, the momentum of the fluid immediately downstream tends to continue downstream. This creates a high pressure drop that can actually boil the liquid and cause vapor to form in the vacuum. When the vapor re-condenses to liquid, the bubble collapses and the separated liquid columns slam back together, creating a sudden high rise in pressure. This is equally damaging to pipes, machinery and support structures. Many such separations can occur during a single water hammer event as the shock wave slams back and forth.19

Controlling water hammer
The following may help to reduce the occurrence of a water hammer event:

  • Reduce the operating pressure of the water supply by installing a pressure regulator.
  • Use larger diameter pipe to reduce linear flowrate. Some applications suggest sizing pipe so that linear flow does not exceed 5 ft/sec (1.5 m/s).
  • Break up the flow path with a few elbows to minimize the long runs of straight pipe.
  • Use slow-closing valves.
  • Use slower starting pumps.
  • Use a separate manually controlled valve to fill empty pressure tanks or pipes to displace the air and create backpressure at a lower flowrate to avoid the shock.
  • Incorporate sections of flexible elastic pipe or hose that can absorb some of the shock.
  • Incorporate bladder tanks as shock absorbers in systems with rapid starts and stops.
  • Use flywheels on pumps (slower to start and slower to stop).
  • Incorporate water-hammer arrestors in the pipeline as shock absorbers.
  • Use vacuum breakers on tanks to eliminate imploding. Tanks are made to hold pressure, not vacuum.

To control surge pressure in situations where excessive pressures can develop by operating a pump with all valves closed, pressure relief valves can be installed between the pump discharge and the pipeline. Also, pressure relief valves or surge chambers should be installed on the discharge side of the check valve where backflow may occur. Air trapped in a pipeline can compress and expand in the pipeline, causing velocity changes which can contribute to water hammer. To minimize such problems, prevent air from accumulating in the system by installing air-relief valves at the high points and both ends of the pipeline.

Other general recommendations for minimizing water hammer suggest that for long pipelines sloping up from the pump, install non-slam check valves designed to close at zero velocity and before the column of water above the pump has an opportunity to move back.

The five-foot-per-second rule
To minimize water hammer, especially for plastic (PVC) pipe, water velocities should be limited to 5 ft/sec unless special considerations are given for controlling water hammer. Most experts agree that the velocity should never exceed 10 ft/sec. Also, the velocity of flow in the suction pipe of centrifugal pumps should be kept between 2 and 3 ft/sec in order to prevent cavitation. Table 7 lists the maximum flowrates recommended for different ID pipe sizes using the five-foot-per-second rule.

The high pressure created by the sudden starting or stopping of the flow of water inside a closed system (pipe, tank, pump or cartridge housing) can do serious damage to the equipment and poses a danger to equipment and personnel that might be in the area. Water hammer can create pressures in the 1,000-psi range in small equipment and in excess of 10,000 psi in large systems with long runs. Avoid water hammer by slowing the linear flow, using slow-acting valves and slower starting pumps.


  1. Baker Corp., Seal Beach, CA. What is Water Hammer? A white paper.
  2. Wikipedia. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/water_hammer

About the author
C.F. ’Chubb’ Michaud is the Technical Director and CEO of Systematix Company of Buena Park, CA, which he founded in 1982. He has served as chair of several sections, committees and task forces with WQA, is a Past Director and Governor of WQA and currently serves on the PWQA Board, chairing the Technical and Education Committees. Michaud is a past recipient of the WQA Award of Merit, PWQA Robert Gans Award and a member of the PWQA Hall of Fame. He can be reached at (714) 522-5453 or via email at AskChubb@aol.com

Global Spotlight

Friday, December 6th, 2013

ResinTech, Inc. has relocated its west coast facility to a new 26,000-square-foot facility in Gardena, CA. It provides more space and the ability to stock a larger inventory of the company’s ion exchange resins, activated carbon and fiberglass tanks. The Aries FilterWorks division of ResinTech will have expanded production capabilities and stocking of filter cartridges and systems. Plans are also in the works to include a resin testing and water analysis laboratory as part of the new offices.

Mid-west operations for Performance Water Products, Inc. has expanded, grow- ing from 4,900 to 13,800 square feet and relocated to a new facility in Mukwonago, WI, eight miles from its former location in Eagle, WI. The new facility affords space to consolidate and inventory more product and the ability to work with loyal customers to engineer and build larger equipment for the commercial/industrial market. The new address is 823 Swan Drive, Mukwonago, WI 53149 and the new fax number is (262) 363-9690.

North America

FWQA golf tournament sponsors announced

Filtrex and HaloSource have committed to sponsoring the WWIF–FWQA 2014 Golf Tournament to be held in Orlando, FL on March 18, 2014 during the upcoming WQA Aquatech Annual Convention and Trade Show. The commitment was made at separate meetings during the recent Aquatech trade show in Amsterdam. The foundation will be reaching out to other members of the industry to participate in the golf tournament or to become sponsors. This year, the tournament is being held in cooperation with the Florida Water Quality Association (FWQA); the funds raised will benefit both organizations. For more information, visit the foundation website as details are updated.

Desal capacity to increase

The amount of new desalination capacity expected to come online during 2013 is 50-percent more than last year’s total, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData. Desalination plants with a total capacity of six million cubic meters per day (m3/d) are expected to come on line during 2013, compared with four million m3/d in 2012. While this year’s growth is somewhat lower than 2010, the data shows that demand for desalination continues to grow, with an increasing proportion of that growth coming from the industrial sector.

IBWA: low-water-use ratio noted in study

The results of a new study released by the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) show that the amount of water used to produce bottled water products is less than all other types of packaged beverages. On average, only 1.39 liters of water is used to produce every one liter of finished bottled water. This study was produced by Antea Group, an independent third-party consultant that conducted the data collection process, verification, analysis and reporting. In total, nine IBWA member companies and one industry peer contributed to the study, which represents 14.5 million liters of bottled water production—an impressive 43 percent of total 2011 US bottled water consumption. This exemplary measure of first-year participation demonstrates the dedication of North American bottlers to better understand the industry’s wateruse performance.

WEF news

A record number of 22,589 registrants and 971 companies using 297,400 net square feet (27,629.36 m2) of exhibit space has designated WEFTEC 2013 as the largest in the organization’s 86-year history. As the location for WEF’s first-ever conference in 1928, Chicago has proven to be a popular destination . The last time WEFTEC was held in Chicago was in 2008—an equally successful event that set the previous record of 21,950 registrants. Students from the University of South Florida and the University of British Columbia were announced as winners of the 2013 Student Design Competition. The University of South Florida team’s project, City of St. Petersburg Biogass Utilization Project, won in the wastewater design category and the University of British Columbia team’s project, Microalgae Cultivation and Harvesting: Design of Pilot Facilities at the Annacis Wastewater Academy, won in the environmental design category. The competition promotes real-world design experience for students interested in pursuing an education and/or career in water/wastewater engineering and sciences. Both teams received certificates and a $2,500 (USD) award as announced by WEF Past President Jeanette Brown.

Mueller plant honored by OSHA

Mueller Water Products, Inc. announced that its Mueller Co. Albertville, AL plant has earned the coveted Star Certification from OSHA. Star is the highest level of recognition offered through OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Program. Mueller Co.’s Albertville facility becomes only the sixth foundry in the US, and the only one in Alabama and the Southeast, to earn this designation. Company employees and families celebrated this achievement on Saturday, October 19 at a company picnic where the coveted OSHA Star flag was unveiled.

Aquionics honored by IUVA Aquionics has been presented with the 2013 International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) Product Innovation Award for its PearlAqua UV-C LED water disinfection device. According to IUVA, the biennial award recognizes an exemplary product or process involving UV applications. Each nominated product or process is reviewed for innovation in design and engineering, as well as its impact on society. Judges consist of a committee of industry experts representing academia, regulators, manufacturers, users and design consultants. Pool association changes name SPEC has changed its name to the California Pool & Spa Association (CPSA) in order to bring clarity to legislators, regulators, potential members and the public with regard to whom the association represents and to position CPSA as the go-to organization for government officials and the public on swimming pool and spa issues. For over 35 years, SPEC represented all facets of the swimming pool and spa industry in California, including pool builders, equipment manufacturers, the pool service industry, distributors, retailers, designers and subcontractors. California is the largest market in the country for the swimming pool and spa industry and related products and services. How California performs as a market and what happens there politically relative to key issues affecting the industry will have an effect the swimming pool and spa industry across the nation.

Dow financing program launched

Dow Water Process & Solutions, together with De Lage Landen Financial Services (DLL), announced the industry’s first RO element leasing program for FILMTEC™ elements. Through this collaborative offering, businesses and municipalities in North America can now benefit from innovative financing to ease element acquisition and affordability and to better manage cash flow. The new program, which is also available for purchases made via DW&PS channel partner OEMs, is designed to give end users flexibility whether their acquisition is planned or not. Additionally, the leasing program will give end users the best opportunity to consistently use the latest DW&PS RO technology, while continually staying within warranty term coverage.

FBR system launched in Nevada

Envirogen Technologies, Inc. announced the successful start-up of a large-scale fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR) system for American Pacific Corporation (AMPAC) to achieve the biodegradation of perchlorate and other constituents from groundwater in the area of a former manufacturing facility in Henderson, NV. The 1.2-million-gallon-per-day (MGD) (4.5-million-liter-per-day) capacity system replaces a smaller biological system that had been in service since 2006, and utilizes Envirogen’s patented FBR technology in a custom configuration to reduce influent concentrations of perchlorate of up to 500 ppm to non-detectable levels prior to
surface discharge.


Aquatech award winners announced

Aquatech award winners were announced during the International Water Week event held in November in Amsterdam. The winners were Water Treatment: HumVi Liquid, Vitens, the Netherlands; Waste Water Treatment: Anaerobic MBR, X-Flow (Pentair), the Netherlands; Transport & Storage: Sofrel LT US, LACROIX Sofrel, France; Process Control Technology & Process Automation: N2O Wastewater System, Unisense A/S, Denmark and Not Yet to Market: Early Biofouling Detection Biosensor, Mekorot National Water, Israel. The overall winner was HumVi Liquid, from Vitens. The company was honored with the Aquatech Innovation Award during the opening ceremony.


Purolite solution announced for Fukushima plant

Purolite Corp. announced that after two years of extensive research and development it has a solution to the multiple issues surrounding the Fukushima radioactive water crisis. The proprietary process incorporates a total solution to include the four main points identified by TEPCO in its most recent request for proposals. Purolite’s technical experts worked in cooperation with major Japanese companies to develop a unique solution to this complex problem. Its proprietary technology effectively removes identified contaminants and will help solve Fukushima Daiichi’s environmental problems.

Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation: Golden Success Comes to New York

Friday, December 6th, 2013

By Anthony Quaranta

Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation
375 Marcus Boulevard
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Tel: (631) 273-0500

Since 1963, Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation has pioneered the discovery and development of beneficial and environmentally sound uses of ultraviolet energy to purify, disinfect and sanitize water, liquid and air. Its American-made products include water purification equipment, air sanitizing and surface disinfection systems, and UV germicidal lamps for residential and commercial applications.

Hilary Boheme and Thomas Dituro were employed by a manufacturer of ultraviolet equipment who was also a regional distributor for a large UV lamp manufacturer. In 1963, with the business failing, the owner decided to sell the company to Boheme, current President of the company and Dituro; thus, the privately held Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation was formed. The use of UV light fixtures and equipment to eradicate bacteria, mold and viruses in water and air was in its infancy. This enabled the company to be at the forefront of developing better, more efficient ways to utilize this technology. One such discovery—which is still available today—was the 1970s invention of the Sanitron® Ultraviolet Water Purifier. It provided a unique and rapid method for water disinfection without the use of heat or chemicals.

In its early years, the business was located in a facility in Long Island City, NY. Through hard work, long hours, cold calling and a willingness to manufacture custom ultraviolet equipment, the company began to make itself known as a high-quality, wellengineered equipment producer. With no advertising budget, sales and new customers came by word-of-mouth referrals. A few years after its inception, a large lamp manufacturer that utilized Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation as its exclusive distributor decided to expand their distribution channel. This resulted in intense competition and a large reduction in sale of the UV lamps. Atlantic Ultraviolet developed its own proprietary lamp-making equipment, which enabled production of a proprietary brand of germicidal lamps. These lamps could be used within equipment that Atlantic was manufacturing, as well as for replacement lamps for existing UV fixtures. The Ster-L-Ray line of US-made germicidal UV lamps quickly became known as a viable and cost-effective alternative brand.

In 1972, Atlantic Ultraviolet continued as industry innovators, having invented and patented the Ster-L-Ray GX highoutput germicidal lamp. At the time, it was the most powerful germicidal lamp available and was designed specifically for Atlantic’s new Sanitron brand of UV water purifiers. Because of its unprecedented power and smaller footprint, the lamp embedded the Atlantic Ultraviolet brand in the market. Although Boehme was granted a US patent for Sanitron’s ‘wiper mechanism’ innovation in the 1980s, it has been a part of the Sanitron since it was first manufactured. Another US patent awarded to Atlantic Ultraviolet in the early 1990s was for the invention of an ‘easy-off seal assembly.’ Up until that time, routine maintenance on water purifiers was very tedious and required tools. The easy-off seal assembly provided an effective seal, while simultaneously permitting a technician to immediately open the seal with one hand, without the use of any tools. This invention represented the first tool-less way of doing routine maintenance on water purifiers.

The company grew steadily as did its product lines and patents. Its goal was to maintain US-based operations while serving a global audience. In 1975, to accommodate a growing inventory and staff, Atlantic moved to a 5,000-squarefoot, custom-built facility in Bay Shore, NY. They relocated again in 1993 to the current 37,500-square-foot facility in Hauppauge, NY. Through the years, the company has also added numerous accessory products to be used in and/or with the vast array of equipment sold. At present, Atlantic Ultraviolet has contributed many innovations to the field of UV technology, which have resulted in more than 10 registrations with the US Patent and Trademark Office.

Today, the company offers an extensive line of water and air purification products sold under the trademark names: Ster-L-Ray, Minipure, Ultimate, BioLogic, MightyPure, Sanitron, Megatron, Nutripure, TankMaster, EcoLogic, Sanitaire, SaniRay, SaniLight, Sanidyne, AeroLogic and Hygeire. Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation continues to be a leader in applied UV technology, developing effective and cost-conscious solutions that have made it a highly recognizable brand within commercial, industrial, residential and recreational settings. New products are subjected to rigorous test protocols in order to ensure the highest standards of performance, reliability, usefulness and value. As it celebrates 50 years in the UV lamp and equipment manufacturing business, the company continues to pioneer the discovery and design of beneficial uses of UV energy. Its unwavering commitment to research and development has resulted in cost-effective and environmentally sound products that are well-known and utilized around the globe.

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