Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine


Saturday, November 17th, 2007

B&V Director Lee appointed
Ping-Kuen Lee, Associate Director of Black & Veatch’s global water business in Hong Kong, has been appointed to a position with the Commission on Strategic Development. His responsibilities include advising the Special Administration Region Chief Executive on Hong Kong’s long-term development needs and goals with particular reference to the direction and strategy of social, economic and political growth. Lee will hold his position as a non-official member for a period of two years until July 2009.

Mucciolo named at Chemilizer
Debbie Mucciolo joined Chemilizer Products’ marketing team as Marketing Research/Copywriter. A former Project Manager for Morrow Technologies Inc., she will assist with Chemilizer’s current expansion into other markets, including water treatment and swimming pools. Mucciolo earned her BA Degree from New York University.

Parone new Finance Director
AwwaRF named James C. Parone Director of Finance and Administration, responsible for the organization’s finance, technologies, administration and various human resource activities. Previously, he served as Director of Finance and Technologies for the American Animal Hospital Association. Parone earned a BS Degree in finance from Indiana University and an MBA from Regis University. He is a licensed Certified Financial Planner.

Campbell and Felton join IBWA staff
IBWA named Michele Campbell Director of Conventions, Tradeshows and Meetings and Daniel Felton as Director of Government Relations. Campbell is responsible for the coordination and planning of quarterly board and committee meetings and the annual IBWA Convention and Trade Show. She has over 20 years of experience in meeting and convention planning. Felton is responsible for tracking and providing input on federal and state legislation and regulations that impact issues concerning bottled water. Prior to joining IBWA, he was Legislative Manager and Analyst for the National Card Coalition (NCC) in Washington, D.C. and served as Legislative Associate and Analyst for KM Strategies, Inc.

Brockhaus accepts new position
A.J. Antunes & Co. appointed Bill Brockhaus to the newly created position of Director, International Water Filtration. A 32-year veteran of the water treatment industry, he assumed responsibility for the establishment of international sales goals and the firm’s international distributor network, including the selection, training and management of personnel. Brockhaus previously served as Director, International Development for Everpure, LLC. He holds a Masters Degree in Middle Eastern Studies and communicates in five languages in addition to English.

Lenze VP named
Danny McDonald, former Director of Sales at Lenze-AC Tech, has been appointed to the newly created position of Vice President of North American Sales. His responsibilities include evaluating the current market, estimating market projections and advancing development of the North American sales channels. McDonald brings more than 30 years of sales expertise to his new role and will promote greater interaction with the firm’s distributor partners.

Desportes appointed at Aquatech
Aquatech International Corporation has named Charles Desportes as Director of Thermal Desalination. Previously, he was the Technical Director of Entropie, specializing in the design of water desalination systems with Multiple-Effect Distillation (MED) thermal technology. Desportes is an acknowledged expert in the field of thermal desalination and has played a pivotal role in key developments.

New Regulatory Affairs Manager
Ron Grimes has joined NSF International as Manager of Regulatory Affairs, responsible for advancing the organization’s mission. With over 30 years of health department experience, he will build awareness for NSF among state, county and local health departments and other regulatory and agency officials. Previously, Grimes served as the Jackson County Health Department Health Officer in Jackson, Mich. He holds a Master’s Degree in health planning and administration from the University of Michigan and a Bachelor’s Degree in environmental health from Indiana State University.

Mahmood appointed at Parkson
Parkson Corporation, an Axel Johnson Company, appointed Zain Mahmood as President and Chief Executive Officer. Prior to joining Parkson, he was Vice President and General Manager of the Global Construction Materials business unit at Johns Manvilley.

IWC award for Gottlieb
The International Water Conference (IWC) presented Michael Gottlieb, President and Founder of ResinTech, Inc., with its Annual Merit Award at ceremonies held in October. Each year, outstanding individuals in the field of industrial water technology are honored by the conference. Gottlieb was selected for his contributions to ion exchange technology in research and development, innovations as a manufacturer of ion exchange resins and as a leader in the field of special applications.

Global Spotlight

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

Aquion Water Treatment Products, LLC’s Erie Water Treatment Controls business unit has moved its Belgian operations to a larger facilty located at Lammerdries-Oost 30c, Industriezone OLEN Z. 3, B-2250 Olen Belgium. Telephone +32 (0) 14-28-51-71 and fax numbers +32 (0) 14-28-51-70 remain unchanged. 💧

The Dow Chemical Company announced an across-the-board price increase for acrylates in all regions, effective October 1 or as otherwise allowed by individual contract terms, in addition to an increase that went into effect August 1. Off-schedule prices for butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and glacial acrylic acid increased in North America, US$0.03 per pound; Asia, Middle East/Africa and Latin America, US$70 per metric ton and  €50 per metric ton in Europe. 💧

The American Water Works Association has announced its partnership with Forrest T. Jones & Company of Kansas City, Mo. The firm will be the official administrator of the organization’s life and health insurance plans. A variety of insurance plans, including comprehensive health, ID theft assist, Liberty Mutual home and auto insurance and Long-Term Care Evaluation Service will be available through this partnership. 💧

Watts Water Technologies announced the resignation of Chief Operating Officer William D. Martino last month. Ernest E. Elliott, Executive Vice President of Marketing, will fill the position until a permanent replacement has been identified. 💧

North America

Golf tourney reminder
The Leveredge/ISPC Annual Golf Tourney will take place at the Mystic Dunes Golf Resort, just west of Walt Disney World in Orlando, Fla. on November 9, beginning at noon. The format will be a shotgun start best-ball scramble with four-player teams. Prizes include a seven-day Caribbean cruise for two, a set of Callaway® Big Bertha Irons and roundtrip domestic airline tickets for two. A BBQ-style buffet and raffle will be held after the tournament. More than $8,000 worth of prizes, including a 42” high definition TV will be given away.

Syrenius and T-DRILL celebrate
T-DRILL Industries, a 30-year-old manufacturer of tube and pipe fabrications, proclaimed 2007 as the 20th anniversary of its current ownership. The first 10 years saw several owners and marginal growth. Under the leadership of Osmo Syrenius, the firm has continued to grow and expand its product line. T-DRILL has two modern manufacturing facilities in Finland in addition to one in Atlanta, Ga. The company’s signature line of machines has been supplemented with manufactured machines used for cutting, spinning, flanging, end forming and deburring tubes. All are sold worldwide.

Additions to IBWA convention schedule
The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) has added an Environmental Issues Panel to the Convention General Session, as well as an educational session to give attendees a clear sense of the current media landscape and tactics that may be used to deliver positive bottled water messages. The panel will feature expert speakers on a variety of key issues that have risen to the top of the public agenda over the past several months and provide useful ideas that companies can implement in their own businesses. Assertive Media Tactics: Turning Up the Volume on Bottled Water Communications will be presented by Dan Gainor, Director of The Business and Media Institute. He will elaborate on the media environment that gave rise to the attacks on bottled water and provide attendees with an overview of some tools businesses can use to better defend themselves. This will include how reporters, editors and producers go about gathering and packaging news and how companies in the bottled water industry can get their story heard above the din.

WorldWater & Solar news
WorldWater & Solar Technologies Corp. moved its corporate headquarters to a larger facility in October, located at 200 Ludlow Drive, Ewing, NJ 08638. Telephone (609) 818-0700 and fax number (609) 818-0720 remain unchanged. The company also announced an agreement with Prime Solar Senergy, S.L. (Prime) of Barcelona and Madrid to be WorldWater’s exclusive representative in Spain. Prime will act as a marketing and logistics partner to acquire and fast-track large-scale photovoltaic installations throughout Spain.

GE’s EDR solutions announced
GE Water & Process Technologies launched the next generation of electrodialysis reversal (EDR) solutions, enhancing its portfolio of advanced water and wastewater treatment solutions designed to address the world’s growing water demands. Using an electrochemical separation process that allows selective passage of ions in solutions, GE’s EDR technology produces high-quality water for a variety of industrial applications, such as cooling and boiler make-up water. Its rugged membranes and high chlorine tolerance make it ideal for a variety of wastewater reuse projects.

Atlantium joins GoingGreen Top 100
Atlantium Technologies Ltd. was honored as one of the AlwaysOn Top 100 emerging companies that are creating new business in green technology. Announced at a special reception at KPMG’s office in Silicon Valley, Calif., inclusion in this prestigious group acknowledges the impact that Atlantium’s innovative Hydro-Optic Disinfection (HOD) technology is having on the UV water disinfection industry.

NSF news
NSF/ANSI Standard 61 has been updated to further protect the public from exposure to lead. Changes to the evaluation criteria for lead extraction testing in the NSF/ANSI Standard 61: Drinking Water System Components–Health Effects have been adopted by the NSF Drinking Water Additives Joint Committee. Included are a reduction in the standard’s total allowable concentration (TAC) of lead from 15 ug/L to five ug/L; a 50-percent reduction of the Q Statistic from 11 to five for all end-point devices, other than supply stops, flexible plumbing connectors and miscellaneous components; more than a 75-percent reduction of the Q Statistic from 11 to three for supply stops, flexible plumbing connectors and miscellaneous components and a three-fold reduction of the single product allowable concentration (SPAC) for lead from 1.5 ug/L to 0.5 ug/L. NSF will host the next meeting of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program stakeholder meeting, to be held Tuesday, November 27 in Ann Arbor, Mich. Call the Holiday Inn North Campus directly at (734) 769-9800 for room reservations by November 8 or contact Bruce Bartley at (734) 769-5148 for more information.

US EPA water course announced
US EPA announced the new Water Quality Standards Academy Basic Course will be held November 26–30 in Arlington, Va. The introductory course is designed for those with fewer than six months’ experience with water quality standards and criteria programs; however, others may benefit, including veterans of the program who want a refresher. To pre-register, go to www.epa.gov/water science/standards/academy. html.

NSPF in the news
The National Swimming Pool Foundation® (NSPF®) Board of Directors has unanimously awarded four grants (totaling $364,794) that will explore health benefits unique to aquatic exercise and to immersion in hot/warm water. Recipients are Dr. Bruce Becker M.D. of Washington State University ($165,000); Dr. Stephen N. Blair, P.E.D., University of South Carolina ($90,417); Dr. John S. ‘Jack’ Raglin, Ph.D., Indiana University ($59,680) and Dr. William Hornsby, Ph.D., West Virginia University ($49,697). NSPF and the Northeast Spa and Pool Association (NESPA) are collaborating on the January 2008 Atlantic City Pool and Spa Trade Show educational sessions for commercial pool industry professionals. NESPA is also organizing exhibit space to better link commercially focused professionals with vendors. NSPF is the official sponsor of Swimmers: Courage and Triumph, an inspirational collection of compelling stories, published by the ISHOF Press. The book relates the stories of 19 swimmers, some famous and some relatively unknown, that have distinguished themselves in this field. Visit www.nspf.org for more details.

AwwaRF report on EDC removal
Awwa Research Foundation (Awwa RF) published a new report on advanced oxidation process (AOP) methods to remove endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from drinking water. The report indicates that ultraviolet (UV) technology, in combination with low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve advanced oxidation conditions, can be an effective treatment to break down several EDCs in drinking water. The research follows a similar groundbreaking AwwaRF report published recently, Removal of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking and Reuse Treatment Processes. AwwaRF has been a proactive leader in sponsoring research on EDCs and pharmaceuticals/personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water since 1999.

Southwestern salinity levels decreasing
A US Geological Survey (USGS) report concludes that although salinity varies widely throughout the southwest (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming), levels have generally decreased in many streams during the past two decades. Trends in dissolved-solids concentrations in streams were evaluated from 1974 through 2003. Decreases in salinity are attributed, in part, to natural causes, such as geomorphic changes or climate variations, human-related factors and implementation of salinity-control projects. Trends in dissolved-solids concentrations were less apparent in groundwater than in surface water. Salinity levels varied throughout the basin-fill aquifers underlying the southwest, but generally were below 1,000 milligrams per liter. Concentrations exceeded the US EPA secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter (established for taste and hardness) throughout about half of the aquifers.

IWC larger than ever
The International Water Conference (IWC) held at the Hilton Hotel in the Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, Fla. in October announced a 50-percent increase in the number of exhibitors participating over last year. The presentation program covered more than 12 areas of water treatment technology in 20 sessions, including applications, chemicals and equipment, water re-use and zero liquid discharge. All contained original, peer-reviewed technical content.


Mains-fed water cooler industry set to boom
Bottled water coolers in Britain are fast becoming a thing of the past as the government prepares to implement mains-connected water coolers across the National Health Service (NHS). A recent report indicated there has been a prominent shift from bottled to mains-fed water coolers. With environmental and economic benefits in mind, the government is now in the process of implementing mains-fed water coolers on a wider scale across the NHS, with a view to spreading supplies across the public sector. According to a recent report, there are currently 17,000 bottled water coolers and 3,000 mains-fed water cooler machines throughout the service.

EMEC celebrates in Italy
Commemorating 25 years of building one of the world’s largest private solenoid pump and controller companies, EMEC celebrated its silver anniversary at a gala held in central Italy, attended by more than 350 employees, families and representatives from around the globe. The event included dinner and presentations and was topped off with a dazzling music-choreographed fireworks display. EMEC designs and manufactures metering pumps, controllers, sensors and accessories and maintains facilities in Rieti and Milan (Italy), Boston (Mass.), Houston (Texas) and retains distributors in 36 countries.

UltraVolt international rep announced
UltraVolt Inc. named Instrumatic Española S.A. as its new international representative for Spain and Portugal. Based in Madrid, Spain, Instrumatic Española distributes high-tech products across Spain and Portugal and will offer UltraVolt’s full line of off-the-shelf, standard products and accessories.

Latin America

AWWA-ANEAS to collaborate
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Asociacion Nacional de Empresas de Agua y Saneamiento de Mexico, A.C. (ANEAS), National Association of Water and Sanitation of Mexico, will share expertise and resources through an Agreement of Collaboration. ANEAS President Andres Ruiz Morcillo, Director Roberto Olivares, AWWA Vice President Luis Aguiar and Mexico Section Director Emilio Rangel Woodyard met at the ANEAS Annual Conference and Exposition in August to sign the agreement.

2007 Bottled water awards
Bottled water companies gathered in Mexico City for the prestigious 2007 bottledwaterworld design awards, organized by Zenith International Publishing. The program attracted a record 169 entries from 32 countries. Best Bottle in PET was awarded to the 1 litre™ Water Company of Markham, Canada for its uniquely designed, proprietary one liter and one-half liter bottles with an integrated PET cup for upmarket restaurants, hotels and spas. The company also received the Best Overall Concept award for its sophisticated, elegant PET bottle, safe poolside or at spa resorts. Danone Waters (UK and Ireland) scooped the Best Marketing Campaign with the Volcanicity campaign for Volvic.

Middle East

Prize deadline approaching
Less than four months now remain for those planning to enter nominations for the Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water 2006-2008. Closing date for entries for any of the five prizes on offer is 31 December 2007. The prize is intended to reward the efforts of innovative academics and scientists as well as related organizations in the realm of water resources. It has been established to acknowledge the special achievements that have contributed to the development of scientific solutions to solve the problems associated with the provision as well as the preservation of adequate and sustainable water resources, particularly in arid regions.


LANXESS to build India facility
The LANXESS chemicals group announced plans to build a new ion exchange resin plant in the Indian state of Gujarat. Construction on the €30 million (US$42.4 million) site at the new Jhagadia Chemical Park near Baroda is set to begin in 2008. Production is anticipated to start at the beginning of 2010 with 200 new employees. The new plant will manufacture products for industrial water treatment and ultrapure water generation.

Exchange resin facility in China
Rohm and Haas announced its ion exchange resin facility in China is one of four ISO-certified sites expanding operations for a wide range of ion exchange resins manufacture. Over the last 18 months, the company has invested significant resources in its sites in Japan, France, the USA and China. In addition to capturing resin(s) capacity from the company’s UK site, the China facility has been adding additional manufacturing lines and the capacity for acrylic and styrenic anions, cations and drying capability as well as adsorbents. In addition, a dedicated facility for certified pharmaceutical grade resin at the company’s site in France recently received four current Good Manufacturing Practice compliance certificates for its powdered resins used as active ingredients and excipients. Capacity expansions and development work are also underway at the facility in Japan for both cation and anion resins.


Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Karen R. Smith

Ranting and raving
Here in Tucson, where it seems like the powers that be have neither repaired nor built a road since the Eisenhower administration, yet in the ensuing years they gave out a lot of building permits: we’re nearing a million happy citizens. Suddenly, the politicians noticed that the entire road network (such as it is) is crumbling. With much fanfare touting that discovery, they began to work on our roadways—all of them at once. Getting from point A to point B is virtually impossible; my own commute is seven whole miles; it now takes 45 minutes. You do the math.

I bring this up here as a sterling example of the much-discussed infrastructure decay plaguing America. If the water system hereabouts is in the same shape as the roadways (and I am sure it is; after all, the same crackerjack administration is responsible for both) we have significant problems on the horizon. Those problems represent a wealth of opportunities to the residential water treatment professional!

The rise of bottled water consumption can, in part, be laid at the failure of this industry to successfully advertise its wares and abilities to the majority of consumers. Today, the choice is simple: continue to hide your light under the proverbial bushel basket or get out there and acquaint folks with what you do and how you do it.

My own simple straw poll—taken at a local park on a lovely fall afternoon—indicated that few people had any notion at all that they could be getting ‘bottled water quality’ at their very own kitchen sink. Everyone I chatted with regularly consumed bottled water; each of those bottled water customers noted that the water here in Tucson doesn’t taste very good (hence the fact that they buy bottled water rather than drink from the tap). Each of those individuals was surprised when I explained that by installing a water softener and an RO system in my house, we have purified water that tastes wonderful. They were even more surprised when I explained that it made our clothes brighter in the laundry and our showers better for our skin.

If a magazine editor can visit a park on a sunny day and talk about water treatment, so can you. Our local chamber of commerce has regular opportunities for members to tell other members about their business; scout troops need sponsors for just about every activity; the senior centers welcome speakers; PTA meetings and gatherings of other community groups need speakers. Get out there!

It seems the reason for the relative ignorance hereabouts is migration. Despite the slow down in the national homebuilding market, boomers are continuing to retire (about 3,000 turn 60 each and every day, I’m told) and many choose to do that in the sunny southwest. Housing prices are reasonable in comparison to other sunny places (notably southern California). The City of Phoenix reports that 2,000 new residents settle in the Valley of the Sun each and every week. Many—if not most!—of those new Phoenicians have never seen a water softener or an RO unit. They come from places where the tap water was acceptable ‘as is’. If you are not telling them about your products, who is? Don’t count on the folks at the home builder’s design center to adequately represent what you and your technologies can offer the buyer. At best, they can offer your brochures to the prospective homeowner, but obviously cannot answer the questions that will arise. If your products are being offered by contractors and builders in your area, your people should be part of the selection/design center process. Who better to guide them to the right choice for their needs?

Of course, I’m focusing here on the southwest…but the same applies for different reasons elsewhere in the country. Whether lead problems in Washington DC, tannins in Florida, rust in NYC or iron in Georgia—your products solve problems ranging from the simple to the complex. But you have to get out there and acquaint people with the possibilities. While you may not have the advertising budget of the folks in the bottled water industry, you have local opportunities and a community presence—two things money cannot buy. Take advantage of that and get the word out!

I’ll be doing exactly that on behalf of California water treatment dealers in the months ahead. As the new President of the Pacific Water Quality Association, I plan to constantly keep the consumer media aware of and informed about this industry. Both in terms of the health of family members and in the sense of sustainable choices and good citizenship, water softeners make good sense—and great water!

Reaching out to India: The Water Quality Association Extends its Hand

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Latasha Williams

The Water Quality Association (WQA) is an international trade association representing the residential, commercial, industrial and small community water treatment industry. WQA is both a resource and an information source; an educator for professionals; a voice for the industry; an ANSI-accredited product certification body; a laboratory for product testing and a communicator to the public. WQA maintains a constant dialogue with organizations representing different aspects of the water industry in order to best serve consumers, government officials and industry members. Today, WQA is extending its hand yet again.

WQA is working to establish the Indian Chapter Task Force in India. WQA’s Director of Product Certification, Thomas Palkon, initiated this effort with WQA’s Technical Services Consultant Regu P. Regunathan, Ph.D. continuing and monitoring the effort with Dr. Abhay Kumar of Eureka Forbes Limited, Bangalore, as Vice Chair and Govind Bommi of Filtrex International Pte. Ltd., Singa-pore, as Chair to jump start this project.


  • Review local government testing standards and regulations.
  • Launch local lobbying efforts.
  • Broaden consumer education.
  • Recruit new companies to attend the task force meetings.
  • Create solutions to eliminate the misuse of registered trademarks important for domestic and international companies).
  • Administer Professional Certification Exams.
  • Introduce WQA’s trade shows to companies in India.
  • Enhance credibility.
  • Promote product certification.
  • Marketplace protection.
  • Increase consumer awareness of the POU industry and its role of improving drinking water throughout the world.

The Indian Chapter Task Force will be responsible for developing this agenda and coming together a minimum of once a year to meet at the task Force chair’s facility or at a local trade show to discuss the agenda and the concerns of the Indian water industry manufacturers. Some already-recognized concerns are local testing standards and regulations, consumer education, certifying products in the U.S., promoting and implementing certification of sales and installation personnel, promoting as well as protecting the POU/POE industry in India. A WQA representative will be present at each meeting to take minutes and ensure the meeting is conducted in accordance with WQA policies.

Membership requirements

  • Your company must have a presence in India.
  • Your company must be willing to participate on the task force for two years.

Benefits of participation

Enhanced credibility
Water treatment professionals can enhance their credibility and demonstrate their depth of knowledge and experience to both customers and employers through WQA’s professional certification program.

Marketplace protection
WQA supports its members’ initiatives and protects their interests through regulatory intervention and legislative support. As the voice of the water quality industry, WQA provides leadership and influence at all regulatory levels to benefit the industry and consumers without restricting trade. WQA serves as a resource and partner to members seeking help on legislative issues. WQA has knowledge, expertise and contacts to assist members in promoting favorable legislation and combating initiatives that might adversely affect the water industry businesses.

Product certification
WQA encourages all products to be certified by accredited third-party certifiers in all countries. WQA also operates an American National Standards Institute accredited product certification program and is dedicated to the certification of drinking water and related products. WQA Gold Seal differentiates certified products from uncertified products in a competitive marketplace.

The power of becoming a WQA and Indian Chapter Task Force Member
Become a member and receive one free, full conference package to the WQA Aquatech USA show in Las Vegas, Nevada, March 25-29, 2008 (a US$320 value). Also receive a credit coupon good toward WQA purchases including select publications, convention registration, certification exams, booth space, etc. The coupon will be mailed to you upon receipt of a completed application. (No refund for cash—valid for one year)

The inaugural meeting is open to WQA international members and non-members. During the inaugural meeting, the chair will introduce those already involved with the Task Force and provide an update of activities to date. We will establish membership and review the roll of the task force members, the needs of the Indian water industry manufacturers and how the task force can work toward resolving their problems, a question and answer session and to schedule the second meeting. WQA staff will review the steps to a successful ANSI-accredited product certification and how to become a Water Quality Association Member.

Please plan on joining us at the Indian Chapter Task Force inaugural meeting. The anticipated inaugural meeting will take place, November/December 2007. For details and additional information, contact Tom Palkon via email at tpalkon@wqa.org or phone at (630) 505-0160 or you may contact Dr. Regu Regunathan via email at regu5@ yahoo. com or phone at (630) 505-0160.

About the author
Latasha Williams is the Assistant to the Director of Product Certification for the Water Quality Association’s Gold Seal Program. Latasha has worked for the Water Quality Association for three years and has successfully completed the Certified Water Specialist Program earning the title of CWS-III. Latasha can be contacted at WQA by telephone (630) 505-0160 ext. 536, facsimile (630) 505-0752 or email lwilliams@mail.wqa.org.


Ozone in Pools and Spas: An opportunity for Profit

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Cameron Tapp

There is a vibrant recreational water market in need of the services of the skilled water treatment professional. Opportunities include installation and service of municipal,  commercial and residential pools and spas and a host of specialty waterscapes and features from backyard fountains and waterfalls up to theme park-size features complete with water slides, fountains and flumes. This is a significant market: for pools and spas alone, initial and aftermarket sales are estimated to be about $20.8 billion (US).1
Ozone is well positioned to be the sanitation system of choice in the health and environmentally conscious market today, for a number of good reasons:

  • Ozone is by far the strongest oxidizer commercially available.
  • Ozone is generated as needed on site (no storage space is needed as for other sanitizers).
  • Ozone is the only disinfectant that is also a flocculant that cleanses water of organic and inorganic impurities.
  • Ozone is the most practical method for control of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cysts

The advantages of pre-oxidation
Ozone provides pre-oxidation in public pools and spas that use chlorine in addition to ozone for sanitation. By pre-oxidizing the water prior to chemical introduction, combined chlorine (spent chlorine that forms harmful chloramines and THMs in pool water) is kept at a minimum. This is because ozone disposes of the contaminants that create the primary demand for chlorine in terms of oxidation, dramatically reducing combined chlorine that can be formed—in many cases eliminating it altogether. Chloramine formation (and the resulting THMs) is the number one problem in chlorinated pool sanitation—and it can consistently be remedied only by ozone. In fact, ozone oxidizes chloramines that have already formed (however slowly).

Additional advantages
Ozone reduces the amount of chemical(s) required for residual sanitizer and pH adjustment. The elimination of chloramines provides the additional advantages of improved bather comfort, elimination of pool odor (in natatoriums) and improved disinfection and water clarity.

Different applications, different combinations
In commercial applications, ozone/bromine and ozone/chlorine are the most common partners. In residential applications, ozone can even stand alone with trace amounts of algaecide.

Ozone and bromine are chemically synergistic. With minimal amounts of ozone, pool water acts as a bromine regeneration system; the bromine provides residual sanitation and algae control while ozone does the heavy lifting for disinfection. The basic operating principle of this combination is what makes it so effective: is has the ability to constantly regenerate hypobromous acid from the bromide ions present in the pool water.
                                           Br – + O3+ H2O = HOBr + OH- + O2
There are pros and cons to this combination:


  • Excellent synergy
  • Little pH adjustment required
  • Easy to handle
  • Fast microbe kill: 30 to 120 seconds in small contact vessel (CT) or no CT at all
  • Good algae control
  • Minimal odor


  • Bromine cannot be stabilized
  • Cost
  • Cloudy water/swimmer’s itch
  • Low ORP levels

With these factors in mind, the best applications for ozone/bromine fall into four groups: those with light-to-medium bather loads; in pools and spas with good filtration (minimum six-hour turnover rate); where handling and storing chemicals is an issue and in applications where minimal room is available for contact vessel(s).

This combination’s basic advantage depends on ozone pre-oxidation to reduce contaminant ‘load’ on chlorine to eliminate chloramine formation, whereby chlorine is required to act only as a residual sanitizer. It is important to note that unlike the synergy shown with the bromide ion, ozone has no such synergy with the chloride ion. Ozone will oxidize free available chlorine at a very slow rate; the slowness of the reaction is due to the complexity of the chlorine molecule and the primary demand from other contaminants in the water reacting with ozone first (more quickly). The pros and cons of using ozone with chlorine are:


  • Strong oxidation
  • Stable chemistry
  • Less expensive


  • Zero synergy
  • Requires pH control
  • Chlorine is more difficult to handle

The best applications for this combination are pools with high bather loads or other extreme environmental conditions and pools with less proficient filtration. Ideally a pool should be operated with 0.2-0.5 ppm ozone (700-800 mV ORP); an alternative level of 0.5-1.0 ppm (700-800 mV ORP) can also be used.

Additional suggestions

  • Use a flocculation program with all high-rate sand filters, especially in bromine pools.
  • Use a flocculant, particularly with sand filtration.
  • Shock all pools on a regular basis.
  • Drain at least 50 percent of a bromine pool annually.
  • Maintain lowest possible residual sanitizer level (0.2-1.0 ppm) @ 750-800 mV ORP on chlorine pools.
  • Maintain pH range of 7.2-7.4 for chlorine pools, 7.4-7.8 for bromine pools.

Mass transfer

  • Efficient ozone dissolution in water
  • Pressure, concentration and temperature
  • Air to water volume ratio
  • Ozone concentration
  • Bubble size

Profit potentials
Water industry trade shows indicate strong growth in the pool and spa sector. The International Pool & Spa Expo was up 28 percent in 2005 as compared with the previous year; the AQUA Show had an increase in buyers of 16 percent last year, while the N.E. NSPI show was the largest in 23 years. The strength of the market encourages new products, while overall the sales in this category reflect the larger, growing quality-of-life market. Water quality products hold cross-market potential.

Other applications abound
From the large scale (water parks) to the small (residential koi ponds) there are applications of every imagineable size and scope both across the US and globally.


  1. According to the Association of Pool and Spa Professionals, 2005, as reported in the Instant Background Report for Swimming.

About the company    
Cameron Tapp is a principal of ClearWater Tech, LLC, a leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of ozone generation equipment and related components serving a wide range of air and water purification applications and markets. ClearWater Tech is a technical leader in the field, with patents pending on multiple ozone-related products and processes. The company offers a complete range of products for commercial and residential pools and holds dominant positions in two newly expanding markets for ozone equipment: commercial laundries and whole-house residential air treatment. The firm was founded in 1986 and was acquired by AWTP and Waud Capital in 2005. To date, ClearWater Tech has over 20,000 installations on six continents. Clear Water Tech, 850-E Capitolio Way, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401. Toll free: (800) 262-0203; sales@cwtozone.com; www.cwtozone.com.


Harmful Water-based Amoeba in the News Again

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Kelly A. Reynolds, MSPH, PhD

Avid readers of On Tap may recall previous articles on Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba that occurs naturally in water environments (On Tap, January 2006; June 2000). The water-based pathogen is making media headlines (“Brain Eating Amoeba” Associate Press, September 30, 2007) as the annual number of deaths in the US again spiked in 2007.

Populations commonly exposed
The causative agent is a parasitic protozoa, Naegleria fowleri. Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba, commonly present in soils and surface waters worldwide (cases reported in diverse locations such as Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Africa, India, Korea, Japan, Peru, Venezuela, Panama and the United States). In warm waters (usually above 80oF), the pathogen multiplies, due to an increase in bacterial and algal food sources. The organism has been isolated in recreational freshwater supplies, hot springs, warm water discharges from industrial plants, poorly maintained swimming pools (including therapeutic pools), aquariums, soil and even tap water.

Naegleria fowleri has been isolated from hot water systems of hospitals, where 22 percent of the samples collected from six hospitals were positive. In addition, thermal discharges from power plant facilities greatly contribute to the growth of Naegleria fowleri commonly present in the environment. During periods of thermal additions, the concentrations of Naegleria fowleri increase by as much as two orders of magnitude.1 Concentrations may not return to previous levels for 30 to 60 days following the cessation of warm water discharges.

In a year-round survey of aquatic environments in Tulsa, Okla. Naegleria fowleri was isolated from 18 percent of the 2,016 processed water and swab samples collected. In Egypt, Naegleria species were detected in 12 out of 16 (75 percent) swimming pool samples; six out of 10 (60 percent) surface water and canal samples. Although first recognized as a human pathogen in 1965, increased awareness and improved diagnostics may account for the apparent increase in incidence. Because death is so rapid and almost certain, confirmation of the disease is usually done post-mortum upon examination of brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid.

Naegleria is not transmitted via person-to-person contact and it is unable to infect via the gastrointestinal route (i.e., via food and water consumption). There is evidence, however, of possible tap water transmission via bathtub exposures. Humans are infected when the amoeba enters the nasal passages, traveling up the cells of the nervous system to the brain, where it destroys brain tissue, causing severe illness and usually death within one to two weeks. Naegleria fowleri is thought to enter nasal passages when water is forced into the nose via diving or jumping. Although infections are still rare (one in 100 million chance of contracting the disease), the fatality rate is nearly 100 percent, with few treatment options available.

Recent outbreaks
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an average of one to three Naegleria infections occur in the US each year. From 1995 to 2004, there have been 23 documented deaths, but in 2007 alone, six fatal cases were identified. Infections usually occur in healthy, young people who have a history of exposure to swimming or diving in warm fresh water within the last seven to 14 days. All six cases this year were associated with recreational water exposures; i.e., freshwater lakes, rivers and streams and in males between the ages of 10 and 22. All of the cases were in warm climatic regions (Florida, Texas and Arizona). The sixth case occurred in Arizona, and involved a 14-year-old boy who swam in Lake Havasu who survived for nine days with severe and persistent headaches. Most often, the first symptoms develop two to five days after the last exposure to contaminated water. The illness begins suddenly with the abrupt onset of fever, headache, nausea and vomiting.

If detected early enough, treatment with antibiotics and anti-fungal medications may prevent death; however, many of the symptoms are due to damage having already occurred in the brain. Still, at least four persons have been successfully treated following infection.

Tap water exposures
In 2002, two five-year-old children, both living in Maricopa County, Arizona, died of meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. The children did not know each other and did not attend the same school but became sick on the same day and died within 72 hours following hospital admission. Both families reported that the children routinely played in the bathtub. Public health officials were surprised to find that tap water was the only common exposure route of the two children. The water supply was an untreated groundwater source from a private water company serving 6,000 residents at the time of the outbreak. This was the first evidence linking Naegleria to a groundwater source. The groundwater supply from one boy’s home and the refrigerator filter from the nearby home of the second boy’s grandparents, where he reportedly spent a lot of time, were both positive for Naegleria fowleri. A follow-up survey of bathroom and kitchen pipes and sink traps found that 17/19 samples were positive for Naegleria fowleri. Filtered bathwater from both of the homes also tested positive.2

Stagnant water in the domestic setting is also a concern. Outbreak conditions suggest that regrowth of the amoeba in stagnant sections of the domestic water supply may account for higher levels and increased incidence of disease. Those who bathe in untreated groundwater supplies or in tap water supplies with no residual disinfectant may be at increased risk of exposure despite avoidance of recreational water contacts. Domestic water supply contamination was reported in South Australia and traced to growth in overland pipes during a period of hot weather. The exposure sources included a backyard wading pool and bathtub.

The recent national media frenzy was spawned not only by the 2007 spike in CDC-reported cases but also following the release of information from the University of Arizona researcher, Dr. Charles Gerba, stating that Naegleria is commonly isolated from tap water utilizing groundwater sources in Tucson, Ariz. Such findings were surprising since Naegleria outbreaks are primarily associated with surface water exposures. The Arizona study found that twelve out of thirty-five wells initially tested positive with five confirmed positives after subsequent sampling for the organism. Tucson water is disinfected with chlorine prior to distribution. Chlorine is known to be effective at killing Naegleria fowleri; however, not all groundwater supplies are currently disinfected.

Reducing your risk
We know that Naegleria fowleri is ubiquitous worldwide and commonly present in surface waters, groundwater and soils of the US. In fact, free living amoebae are the main predators of bacterial populations in the environment and play a major role in the ecological balance of many environmental systems. Humans are frequently exposed to the amoebic organism but few infections occur.

Recreational water continues to be the primary transmission route for Naegleria fowleri and the CDC reports that there will always be a low-level risk of Naegleria infection associated with swimming in warm, freshwater lakes (see Figure 1). Persons who engage in water sports are at increased risk given that the organism must invade the body via entry into the nasal passages where it travels to the brain. More frequent head immersion events and the potential for more forceful entry of water and the amoeba into the nasal passages facilitates the necessary exposure route for the germ to cause disease in humans.

Recreational swimmers should be aware of disease symptoms following swimming in warm waters and especially stagnant water. Recommendations have been issued from tourism agencies, instructing swimmers to avoid submerging themselves completely underwater at hot spring recreational sites, as Naegleria fowleri should be assumed present.

The use of nose-plugs or holding one’s nose when jumping into potentially contaminated water sources is also advised. Warnings from areas where infections have been documented in the past should be considered. Swimming pools should have a chlorine residual of at least one to two ppm. After swimming, remove water from nose by blowing. In the rare instance of characteristic neurological symptomology, physicians should be made aware of recent recreational water exposures.

Regarding tap water exposures, consumer education of domestic exposure routes and the point-of-entry precautionary measures is the primary contribution the water treatment industry can make to the public regarding this highly fatal pathogen. The organism is susceptible to chlorine disinfection, irradiation and it’s large size (eight to 12 µm) also allows for the use of appropriate filtration units. Using only treated bath waters is a valid consideration and water from wade pools should never be reused.

Following domestic water outbreaks of Naegleria fowleri in Australia, recommendations from the Environmental Health Directorate of Australia include letting bath and shower taps run for a few minutes before use and to test pool and spa disinfectant levels every day. In general, they recommend that water you bathe, wade or swim in should be “clean, cool and chlorinated.”


  1. Tyndall, R.L., et al. 1989. “Effect of thermal additions on the density and distribution of thermophilic amoebae and pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in a newly created cooling lake”. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 55: 722-32.
  2. Marciano-Cabral et al., 2003. “Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69: 5864-69.

About the author
Dr. Kelly A. Reynolds is an associate professor at the University of Arizona College of Public Health. She holds a Master of Science Degree in public health (MSPH) from the University of South Florida and a doctorate in microbiology from the University of Arizona. Reynolds has been a member of the WC&P Technical Review Committee since 1997. She can be reached via email at reynolds@u.arizona.edu



Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Laura Mirviss

Just as he had every other Saturday morning, Carlos Hernandez    sat at the kitchen table, eating the eggs his mother prepared. But he was frustrated that day: weeks had passed and still, he and his partners had not located a suitable hard residue to test in their research project. The team of students was searching for a hard material that could absorb lead pollutants in their local water supply.

Hernandez was sure the material was at his fingertips—he was just overlooking it or not thinking hard enough. As he stared down at his plateful of eggs, suddenly an idea struck. Eggshells would be the perfect material!

He raced to the phone and spread the idea. With the majority in agreement, the team decided to run preliminary tests using the eggshells.

Months later, Hernandez and his teammates Adriana Alcantara Ruiz and Dalia Graciela Diaz Gomez were named the winners of the 2007 International Stockholm Junior Water Prize (SJWP). Their months of sleepless nights and meticulous research had paid off. They were awarded a $5,000 cash prize for their work and more importantly, acknowledgement of their tireless effort—the greater prize by far, according to the students.

Congratulations from queens and presidents
As Elin Weyler, the Manager of the International SJWP, called the three Mexican students’ names, their minds went blank. “We were kind of confused, we didn’t know what to do,” Ruiz said. “We forgot everything the producer told us in advance. So, we just put down our certificates and walked to the Princess.”

HRH Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, the patron of the prize, graciously handed the team their award and told them, “Bravo!” That happy moment was the first of many congratulations from nobility, world leaders and members of industry.

The next day, the team received a phone call from Mexican President Felipe Calderon. He asked the winners about their project and along with his congratulations, President Calderon invited the team to Los Pinos (the Mexican equivalent of the US White House).

The attention was a bit overwhelming, the teens said; after all, just a few weeks before, they were together at home, completing their data analysis.

Focusing on lead pollution
Back in Mexico the previous year, the team determined that they wanted to combat lead contamination of local water sources. They’d recently read that their region was one of the top 10 most contaminated places for lead pollution. They knew that lead remediation was costly and that many companies were unwilling to support the clean-up effort due to a lack of political pressure.

Since lead pollution was not a priority, they pondered, a low-budget solution was vital. The team analyzed several eco-friendly and cost-effective materials for lead absorption capacity and ultimately—thanks to a home cooked breakfast—concluded that eggshells were the most effective remedy.

Becoming finalists, the trio conducted their experiments through their school and a state university, sending samples to the National Institute of Nuclear Investigation for analysis. They measured absorption levels of the eggshells when mixed in a liquid lead solution, determining how much of the lead content was removed. Using technical assays, including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning election microscopy (SEM), the team was able to determine the percentage of absorption. Thus, the researchers were able to quantify the lead levels, lending to the credibility of the experiment.

In their rationale for the award, the judges explained why they chose the Mexican team out of 27 projects: they said the solution had clear industrial applications, was economically efficient and could be implemented today. “It’s really simple, that’s the genius of it,” finalist Gomez said. “It can be reproduced tomorrow.”

Hard work pays off
In addition to their scientific efforts, the Mexican team also battled a language barrier. Although they’d successfully competed against 92 other Mexican projects to come to the international competition, their work was far from over. Their paper and presentation had to be translated into English in just a few short weeks, which proved to be a major test of the trio’s persistence and patience.

Forgoing food and sleep, they worked late into the night to complete their translations. “There was a week where we were going to sleep each night at two or three a.m.,” Ruiz said. “We would go to someone’s house, work all night, sleep for an hour or two and get up for school the next day. We were like zombies.” With no time to go home and change, they went to school in the same clothes from the previous day.

Confidently starting college
In the end, those sleepless nights and rumpled mornings were worth it. As the three head for university this fall, each said they were convinced they could do anything. “We have the personal motivation to do whatever we want to do,” Gomez said. “We got to see and experience incredible results for all of our hard work. And besides, how pleasing that’s been for us, personally; it all goes to motivation not just for us, but for other young students here in Mexico.”

Attending different schools, the trio is determined to continue their research together. They hope to explore other metals and other pollutants. One of the judges of the competition expressed an interest in continuing the team’s research in her own laboratory in Colombia. “We’ll be staying in touch with her,” Gomez said. “She wants to look at chromium, another heavy metal.”

Hernandez’s eyes gleam; he is already considering this next project. These students are excited and driven, eager to change the world. Being only in their late teens, they may do just that.

About the author
Laura Mirviss, a high school student from Potomac, Maryland, was the 2007 winner of the ITT Award for Excellence in Student Water Journalism. For her award-winning article about lead, she and a faculty advisor received an expense-paid trip to Stockholm, Sweden to attend the 2007 Stockholm Water Symposium. She also received $1,000 for publishing an article about the event in a trade journal. Here is her report on the Stockholm Junior Water Prize, which ITT has sponsored for the past 11 years.

About ITT and the Stockholm Junior Water Prize
The International Stockholm Junior Water Prize Contest, which is held during the World Water Week in Stockholm each August, aims to encourage young people’s interest in issues concerning water and the environment. The award is given annually for an outstanding water project by a young person or a small group of young people. With this, the competition seeks to inspire young people to a continued engagement with water and the environment. The finalists at the International Stockholm Junior Water Prize are the winners of national SJWP contests. The national and international competitions are open to young people between 15-20 years of age who have conducted water-related projects focusing on local, regional, national or global topics of environmental, scientific, social or technological importance. The International Stockholm Junior Water Prize winner receives a US$5,000 award and a blue crystal sculpture in the shape of a water droplet. As a result of the competitions, thousands of young people around the world become interested in water. H.R.H. Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden is the Patron of the Stockholm Junior Water Prize. The Stockholm International Water Institute administers both the International Stockholm Junior Water Prize competition and Sweden’s national qualifying competition, Svenska Juniorvatten-priset. For further information about the International Stockholm Junior Water Prize, please contact Ms. Elin Weyler: elin.weyler@siwi.org. For information about the Swedish Junior Water Prize, please contact Ms. Annika Börje: annika.borje@siwi.org


Back From The Brink

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By C. F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud CWS-VI

Afellow speaker at an ion exchange conference in Cambridge, England back in 2000 stated that after 50 years in ion exchange academia, he was retiring. In announcing that impending event, he paralleled his career with the life cycle of the ion exchange industry. That is, he implied that ion exchange was born in the early 1950s when he began his career, enjoyed 50 good years of success and was passé by 2000. Boy, was he ever wrong!

Today, there are many applications for which ion exchange may never be replaced and they are increasing in number.

A look back
Historically, the discovery of the ion exchange process is credited to Thompson and Way who, in 1858, determined that certain soils (containing zeolites) could exchange one ion for another. When ammonium salts (fertilizers) were added to a pot containing planting soil, the ammonium ions were captured by the soil and calcium and other salts came out the bottom. Today, this is easily explained because most soils are cation exchangers.

The modern ion exchanger was born in 1940 when a researcher successfully sulfonated a crosslinked polystyrene bead to produce a strong acid cation exchanger. The real discovery was not the sulfonation process; that had been done for almost 50 years. The discovery was in the process of manufacturing the styrene/di-vinylbenzene bead that has since become the backbone of the modern resin.

The mid-1940s were the ‘pre-school’ years for ion exchange. Many new resins were being developed and the discovery of what they would actually do was in full swing. Much was still unknown at this point. These new ion exchangers could exchange sodium for calcium (softening) and could function well in the H+ form (something natural zeolites could not do well). The birth of the strong base anion resin made complete de-mineralization possible for the first time (including the removal of silica).

The 1950s were the ‘teenage’ years for the ion exchange industry. New applications were being created and demineralized water, previously unattainable other than through multiple distillations, was now commonplace, thanks to ion exchange technology. Much research accurately defined the selectivity of the ion exchange reaction leading to advances in metal refining through chromatographic separation and recovery. Pretty much anything Mother Nature had put into water, ion exchange was capable of removing. This opened many new doors for water purification and chemical processing.

Most of the standard resins (i.e., the strong acid, strong base, weak acid and weak base) were fully developed by the mid-1960s. The 1970s saw the re-invention of ion exchange, brought about by the escalation of energy and raw materials pricing. Prices rose dramatically and new processes were sought for cost reductions. Batches got larger. Plants became more streamlined. The 1980s and 90s were the ‘adult’ years with few new developments. Foreign competition made inroads, but was slow to be accepted.

Ion exchange today
Today’s ion exchange industry is truly a global business. Most ‘domestic’ producers of resins also operate or import from offshore sources. Ion exchange is also a very mature business. There are few secrets in the manufacture and use of resins that would tie an end user to a single resin source.

Ion exchange products are more popular than ever as new and lower limits for water contaminants such as arsenic and perchlorates are legislated. Ion exchange shows a very high selectivity for uranium and radium and can be used very effectively for boron, selenium and most heavy metals. Common applications where ion exchange excels are for the reduction of nitrates, sulfates, alkalinity and hardness via salt regenerated systems. Even sodium can be reduced using potassium chloride to regenerate a softener and if the water analysis is just right, fluoride and ammonia can be reduced with salt regenerated ion exchange systems.

What has always made ion exchange unique is its ability to selectively reduce offending ions. Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) which acts on the total feed water and does its work based on water volume, ion exchange processes all the water but does its work solely on the ions that have been selected to be removed.

Changes in manufacturing
Polymeric adsorbents, a form of ion exchange bead, have replaced granular activated carbon in some areas due to their ability to more effectively remove certain organics with higher capacity and regenerability. Copolymer beads, the un-functionalized backbones of ion exchange resins, are even used as ‘lubricants’ in drilling muds to reduce the friction between the drilling bit and the strata (if you have ever stepped on a spill of resin, you will appreciate this).

Most of the advancements in modern resins lie in the discoveries of how to better manufacture the products. Ion exchange resins sell for about the same price today as they did in 1980, even though raw materials, energy and labor have all increased dramatically. Modern manufacturing is cleaner, more efficient, makes larger batches, produces a tougher, more uniform product and is less costly than 25 years ago.

Despite the fact that there is less research on ion exchange chemistry, there are tremendous advances in application such as counter-flow systems, packed beds and disposable high-purity mixed beds. Ion exchange systems can be made smaller and cheaper because the newer products can take higher pressures, temperature and flows. New methods for functionalizing cation resins have led to the development of the shallow-shell technology that saves salt and water for softeners. Hybrids incorporating ion exchangers with ferric hydroxide have created cleaner, higher capacity products for selective arsenic reduction and multi-functionalized anion resins show extreme selectivity for perchlorate remediation.

New applications 
When the bio-diesel industry needed an agent to remove leftover water, glycerin and alcohol from transesterified bio fuels—what else?—the unique water holding properties of ion exchange resins were brought into play. The same resins can also scavenge water out of a tank of gasoline. Ion exchangers can disinfect water by adding iodine and then be employed to remove residual iodine and the iodide salts that may have formed. This technology is currently used aboard the NASA shuttles that zip in and out of orbit.

Ion exchange plays a major role in the production of corn syrup, sugar, wine and juice clarification and de-bittering. Ion exchange is used in the pharmaceutical industry where it is incorporated into certain drugs and used in tablets to help disintegrate them. Ion exchange makes possible the reclamation and reuse of metal-plating chemicals and rinses and will, no doubt, play a key role in the recycling of household waste water (when the time comes); it will certainly find utilization in polishing of desalinated sea water.

The future of ion exchange
Despite its sterling past and golden future, ion exchange may eventually yield to alternative technologies for the home water softener (although there are no such alternatives today). The pressure to eventually reuse and even recycle household and industrial waste water is increasingly calling for the elimination of the salt discharge from existing softeners. Ion exchange brine discharge is also being falsely accused of disrupting the actions of septic systems (although there is a plethora of solid research to show otherwise). So here’s to the next 50 years! Back from the brink? It was never there.

Just as the producers of new chemical products can put new twists on old chemicals for new uses, the manufacturers of ion exchange products can put new functionality on old resin backbones to produce new products. These new products are being used for the selective removal or isolation of metals, chemicals and even proteins. New resins are more efficient due to more uniform particle size, functionality distribution and porosity. They do the same jobs better and cheaper than even 10 years ago. Ion exchange has entered a new age of discovery and application and will be with us well into the new millennium.

About the author
C.F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud is the CEO and Technical Director of Systematix Company, Buena Park, Calif,, which he founded in 1982. An active member of the Water Quality Association, Michaud has been a member of its Board and of the Board of Governors and past Chair of the Commercial/Industrial Section. He is a Certified Water Specialist Level VI. He serves on the Board of Directors of the Pacific WQA (since 2001) and Chairs its Technical Committee. A founding member of WC&P’s Technical Review Committee, Michaud has authored or presented over 100 technical publications and papers. He can be reached at Systematix Inc., 6902 Aragon Circle, Buena Park CA 90620; telephone (714) 522-5453 or via email at cmichaud@systematixUSA.com.


Residential Pool Ozone Use

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Beth Hamil

Ozone and its uses
Most people are familiar with the word ozone, but that is where the familiarity ends. In nature, ozone is among the most essential chemicals on the planet, existing as a gaseous component of the upper atmosphere. Most of us are well aware that the Earth’s ozone layer protects us from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays and without it, life on earth would likely be impossible. However, many may not know that here on the ground, ozone can be very beneficial.

Ozone is a gas that can be produced by machines called ozone generators. There are two basic methods of producing ozone with these devices: ultraviolet (UV) energy or electrical (CD) energy. Both of these systems emulate nature (UV duplicates the sun; CD duplicates lightning). Both make ozone, but CD systems make far more ozone than UV, so it is the most common choice.

How ozone is made
Air or oxygen is drawn into the ozone generator and some of the oxygen molecules (O2) are split by adding energy, resulting in two individual oxygen atoms (O1). Oxygen atoms (O1) then unite with other oxygen molecules (O2) to produce ozone (O3).

Ozone is used in its gas phase for fumigation of unoccupied areas to kill bacteria, viruses and fungi; while eliminating odors and stains. It also slows the spoilage rate of produce in cold storage by reacting with ethylene (improving the quality and life of the product). In aqueous applications, gaseous ozone is dissolved in water at its point of use (POU) and is then referred to as aqueous ozone. Ozone (gaseous and aqueous) is a very powerful oxidizer and an extremely effective antimicrobial. There are no known microorganisms that can build a resistance to ozone. It is much more powerful than familiar oxidizers such as chlorine, bromine or hydrogen peroxide (all of which are effective, but all with some negative aspects).

Aqueous ozone is so safe and effective that is has grown quite popular for many applications including residential swimming pools and spas. Other approved applications for ozone use as an antimicrobial substance include direct contact on food and food contact surfaces; bottled water; municipal drinking water and municipal waste water; commercial swimming pools and a host of other treatments.

How ozone works
As mentioned previously, ozone (O3) is a molecule comprised of three oxygen atoms, with the third atom held on by a very weak bond. It is considered an unstable molecule because during its short life, an oxidation reaction occurs upon any collision between an ozone molecule and a molecule of an oxidizable substance (organic or inorganic). The oxygen atom (O1) with the weak bond splits off, leaving oxygen (O2) as its byproduct. During an oxidation reaction, organic molecules are destroyed and dissolved metals (inorganic) are no longer soluble in water.

Since ozone starts as a gas, for aqueous ozone applications, the gas must be dissolved in the water. This is accomplished quite easily with a simple venturi injector. Depending on the application (from very large projects {multi-million gallon vessels} to the very small {backyard pools or spas}) the installations will obviously vary. But in the case of a residential swimming pool, the installation is generally undertaken by a pool builder if it is a new pool, or by a pool service technician if it is a retrofit on an existing pool. Installations will vary depending on the desired end results.

There are several ozone system manufacturers, hundreds of ozone installers and service technicians and many varieties of ozone systems from which to choose. In all cases, the basic installation varies little other than size. All ozone systems will require a basic ozone gas generating device and an injection system.

Significant benefits
The benefits of adding ozone to a residential backyard pool vary with individual preferences as well as filtration time, but the overall benefits enjoyed are:

  1. 60-90 percent reduction in chlorine usage
  2. Reduction or elimination of chloramines (otherwise know as combined chlorine or bond chlorine) and their off-gas odor
  3. Improved water clarity for two reasons
    1. With oxygen as the byproduct, the water is more sparkly in sunlight
    2. Ozone is a very effective micro-flocculent
  4. Improved water quality and swimmer comfort (no eye burn or foul chemical smell)
  5. Elimination of calcium build-up on spillways and waterways

Reduced chemical use
Since the ozone is generated on-site and only operates during the pool’s filtration cycle and since many residential pools may contain what is commonly known as ‘dead spots’ (the recirculating flow does not necessarily contact all portions of the pool), it is rare (mostly because of economics) to have a regular residential pool that is chlorine-free. A small residual of chlorine is generally necessary to keep algae under control (less than ½ PPM is normal). The ozone system operates automatically; the addition of a floating chlorine tablet erosion feeder or an inline feeder, either of which can be turned down to the lowest setting, is successful.

All other water chemistry routines remain the same as traditionally chlorinated pools, with a few exceptions. The pH balance is easier to maintain because of reduced chlorine addition and consumption and calcium stains are generally eliminated because of the ozone’s ability to break down biofilm (a leading contributor to calcium build-up).

System Size
Sizing an ozone system for residential pools is leveraged from the standard set by NSF International under NSF Standard 50 for commercial swimming pools. Although the dynamics of a residential pool are far simpler than a commercial pool, the scaled down version of bather-to-water ratio is similar. NSF Standard 50, Annex H, tests ozone systems against two forms of microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium. Pass compliance requires a three-log (99.9 percent) reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium in 30 minutes. Actual test results for standard commercial pool ozone sizing provide microbial reductions in six minutes with log reductions of 6.6 log (>99.9999 percent) and 6.7 log (>99.9999 percent) respectively. Therefore, the system sizing for residential pools is about one-quarter the dose used in commercial pools under NSF Standard 50, Annex H.

There are no published standards for the use of ozone in residential pools. Therefore, it is up to the end-user to count on a well informed installer to provide a properly sized system. The only caveat is an undersized ozone system that may not provide the desired chlorine reduction as promised. An oversized system is unlikely, as they tend to be considerably out of range of the average residential pool budget.The best plan for the homeowner is to ask the installer for references, or do a bit of research and self-education.

The use of ozone for residential pools and spas has been steadily growing since the 1985. In fact 90 percent of all residential spas have an ozone system already built into the filtration system. However, residential pool suppliers only offer ozone as an option. This is likely because there are many more pool builders and service technicians than there are spa manufacturers and ozone education still is lacking in the residential pool business.

Another reason for slow acceptance may be attributed to outdated technology of pool ozone systems. In recent years, residential pool ozone technology has greatly improved (and caught up with spa ozone systems) offering the pool owner an affordable, effective way to both reduce the cost and complexity of traditional chemical sanitation and add the benefit of a very pleasant swimming experience.

About the author
Beth Hamil is Vice President, Corporate Compliance Market Development for DEL Ozone. She has been adctive in the swimming pool industry since 1978 and active in the ozone industry since 1982. With DEL for over 20 years, she is named in multiple ozone patents and developed the first UL-listed ozone systems for pools and spas in 1985. In the same year, she develop[ed the first NSF-listed ozone system for commercial pools under Standard 50. Hamil is Co-author of “Application Guidelines for the use of Ozone for Commercial Pools and Spas” (1994) and a collaborator on several university studies regarding the efficacy of ozone for food applications (1997 to present). Hamil co-developed NSF P308 Protocol to determine ozone’s efficacy in jetted bathtubs. She is a member of various professional and scientific organizations, including the International Ozone Association; International UV Association; Institute of Food Technologists; Water Quality Association; NSF Joint Committee Standard 50 (Pools and Spas); NSF UV Task Force and NSF Chloramine Task Force; Association Aquatic Life Support Operators. Hamil can be contacted at DEL Ozone, 3428 Bullock Lane, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401; office phone 800 676 1335 ext. 222; cell phone 805 441 4444; email beth@delozone.com.

Making Sense of an Incomplete Water Analysis

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

By Frank DeSilva, ResinTech, Inc.

The water treatment professional is often required to recommend a treatment scheme to rectify problem water. More often than not, the initial water analysis data that the end user provides is not sufficient to make a valid recommendation.

Here is what you need to get from your customers in order to make a valid recommendation for resin selection and throughput predictions: the influent conditions and also the effluent requirements.

Author’s note: I have gotten into the habit of listing ions in mg/L if they are reported as the ion and in ppm if they are reported as CaCO3. This is a convention used by Bill Bornak in his book, Ion Exchange Deionization.

Information needs by application
Cationic applications (hardness removal, metals removal, radium removal)
pH; TDS or conductivity; hardness (or separate calcium and magnesium numbers); iron; manganese; all metals of concern if metals removal is the application (copper, lead, cadmium, etc.); other cations as needed (radium, for example).

Anionic applications (sulfate removal, nitrate removal, chromate removal, uranium removal, organics removal, perchlorate removal, fluoride removal, dealkalizers, boron removal)
Technically, the same type of resin will remove all of the constituents listed; however, the determination of which anion resin will actually be the best choice is dependent upon the water analysis parameters that are requested. For instance, a type II strong base anion resin will work well for arsenic removal on high pH/low TDS water, while a hybrid strong base anion resin would work well on a low pH/high sulfate water.

pH; TDS or conductivity; sulfate; nitrate; chloride; alkalinity (or HCO3); silica (for arsenic applications).

Of course, for the contaminant of concern (arsenic, chromate, uranium, etc.) you’ll need to know the influent concentration and also the effluent requirement. It is also useful to know if the iron and manganese concentrations are above 0.5 ppm and 0.25 ppm respectively. If so, the client needs to lower the iron and/or manganese level before introducing water to the anion unit.

Deionizer applications
pH; TDS or conductivity; calcium; magnesium; sodium; potassium (if any); sulfate; chloride; alkalinity; silica; CO2.
Deionizer applications will specify effluent quality in terms of conductivity, resistivity, silica or sodium.

Customer provided information
It’s not often that the customer will have all the items you are asking for. TDS or conductivity is easy to test for and you’ll usually be able to obtain those numbers. Here’s an example of roughing up a water analysis from partial information.

The customer provides us with a water analysis that shows the following:

Conductivity 550 microsiemens; hardness 150 ppm; alkalinity 125 ppm; chloride 30 mg/L; silica 15 mg/L; pH 7.

What’s missing? The breakdown of the hardness into calcium and magnesium, the sodium, the sulfate and CO2.

First the cations. If you’re trying to get a cationic water analysis together and the customer only has the inlet conductivity of 550 and the hardness of 150 ppm as CaCO3, here are the assumptions you can make.

Take the inlet conductivity and convert it to TDS ppm as CaCO3 (550/2.53 = 217.4 ppm as CaCO3). By subtracting the hardness of 150 ppm as CaCO3, you find the sodium level as CaCO3 (217.4 – 150 = 67.4 ppm as CaCO3). Now since we don’t have separate numbers for calcium or magnesium, you can use an old rule of thumb that says that calcium is usually two thirds of the total hardness number and magnesium the remaining third. So, the calcium is 100 ppm as CaCO3 and magnesium is 50 ppm as CaCO3.

Cation summary, all as ppm CaCO3: calcium 100 ppm; magnesium 50 ppm; sodium 67.4 ppm.

Now let’s take a look at the anions. Assume that all the customer had for us is the alkalinity (again a simple test for the customer to do), chloride and silica.

Alkalinity 125 ppm as CaCO3. (If the water analysis states alkalinity, it is reported as CaCO3. Sometimes the alkalinity is reported as HCO3 and so you must convert that to ppm as CaCO3); chloride 30 mg/L; silica 15 mg/L.

First thing to do is convert the chloride to ppm as CaCO3 (30 x 1.41 = 42.3 ppm as CaCO3). Now find out what the sulfate level is by subtracting the chloride as CaCO3 plus the alkalinity as CaCO3 from the total cation (217.4 – (125 + 42.3) = 50.1). So the sulfate is 50.1 ppm as CaCO3.

The silica is not incorporated into the ionic balance since it is weakly ionized and does not contribute to the conductivity or TDS.

Here’s a summary of what we have calculated, now shown as ppm as CaCO3:

The total cations and anions should be equal at this point since they all contribute to the electroneutrality of the solution. There may be some potassium present in the cations, but for our calculations, it is lumped in with the sodium since it is also monovalent. On the other hand, there may be low levels of nitrate present; it is lumped in with the chlorides as a monovalent. (This is for DI calculations only. If we are dealing with a nitrate removal job, we need to know precisely how much nitrate is present.)

This is not all of the exchangeable anions, however, since we still have the silica and carbon dioxide to contend with. The silica is reported at 15 mg/L as silica. The conversion to CaCO3 is 0.83 (15 x 0.83 = 12.5 ppm as CaCO3). Adding that to the total anions, 12.5 + 217.4 = 229.9 ppm as CaCO3 as total exchangeable anions (TEA). To be completely thorough, you would want to calculate the CO2 level to see what its contribution would be to the anion loading.

Here is a good link that explains the alkalinity relationships in water. http://www.onlinewater treatment.com/literature/Nalco/docs/Tf-084.pdf. Refer to the chart upper right, page 1. At a pH of 7, the ratio of CO2 to M alkalinity (total alkalinity) is 0.16 (0.16 x 125 = 20 ppm CO2 as CaCO3). That means that our total exchangeable anions are now 229.9 + 20 = 249.9. To calculate the load in grains per gallon, divide the ppm as CaCO3 by 17.1. Total cation load therefore equals 217.4/17.1 = 12.7 grains per gallon (gpg). Total anion load equals 249.9/17.1 = 14.6 gpg.

Here’s our water summary once again. Provided by customer: conductivity 550 microsiemens; hardness 150 ppm; alkalinity 125 ppm; chloride 30 mg/L as Cl; silica 15 mg/L as SiO2; pH 7. Calculated analysis (all shown as ppm as CaCO3):

Of course, any predictive information provided to the customer at this point must clearly show the calculations and assumptions that have been made. The less complete the original water analysis is, the higher the safety factor or engineering factor should be. A typical engineering factor that is used for DI calculations is 0.9 or a 10-percent downgrade for cation or 15 percent for anion, which is applied to the throughput calculations. If we run a projection on the water analysis that we just calculated, you might want to use 0.8 or 0.75 as the safety factor.

Tables 1 and 2 give conversions and information on the common ions.

About the author
Francis J. ‘Frank’ DeSilva is National Sales Manager for ResinTech Inc. of Cherry Hill, N.J. ResinTech is a manufacturer and supplier of ion exchange resin, activated carbon products and the Aries line of laboratory demineralizers and cartridges. DeSilva operates out of Jensen Beach, Fla. He can be reached at (561) 225-0763, (561) 334-1099 (fax) or email: fdesilva@resintech.com


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