Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine


Monday, October 21st, 2002

KDF welcomes new CEO
Issa Al-Kharusy was appointed CEO of KDF Fluid Treatment Inc., of Three Rivers, Mich. Prior to his appointment, he was president of KDF from 1996 to 2002 and director of research and development at the company from 1993 to 1996. As director of research and development, he created a state-of-the-art research laboratory and was instrumental in obtaining NSF certification of KDF media. Al-Kharusy, CWS-VI, is a member of the Water Quality Association, and a WQA Education Committee member. He also belongs to the American Water Works Association and the International Society of Beverage Technologists, where he is part of the water quality technical committee. KDF is in the fluid treatment industry and produces economic solutions for clean water.  

Severn appoints new CEO
Leonard Graziano was appointed president and chief executive officer of Severn Trent Services, of Fort Washington, Pa. Graziano joined Severn Trent Services in January 2000 as senior vice president of the company’s Operating Services and Water Purification groups. One of his previous jobs was president of Brookshire, Texas-based Johnston Pump Inc., a global pump company specializing in the municipal, power and petroleum markets. Graziano earned a bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering from Rutgers University and a master’s degree in business administration from Temple University. He serves on the board of directors of the Water Partnership Council.  

O’Keefe named new Watts CEO
Watts Industries Inc., of North Andover, Mass., appointed new CEO Patrick O’Keefe in August. He replaces Timothy Horne who announced his retirement plans on June 20. O’Keefe has a master’s degree in management from Northwestern University. Watts designs, manufactures and sells an extensive line of valves to the backflow prevention, water regulation and control markets, with annual sales of around $600 million. It also makes residential RO equipment through its Phoenix subsidiary, Watts Premier.

Firm promotes Lucas to post
Tomlinson Industries, of Cleveland, announced the promotion of Christine Lucas to human resources manager. She joined the company in 1999. Her responsibilities include coordinating all aspects of safety at the company, overseeing and handling OSHA and workers’ compensation. Lucas recently completed her associate’s degree at Cuyahoga Community College. Tomlinson is a manufacturer of equipment for the foodservice, hospitality, and water and beverage industries, and is ISO 9002 certified.

Norland grows by two
Lincoln, Neb.-based Norland International Inc. announced two staff additions—John Swancara as customer service technician and Barry Siedell as marketing communications manager. Swancara joins the company after 11 years as an applications and design engineer at Pure Water Inc., of Lincoln, Neb. Prior to that, he worked five years at Viking Water System, of Newport Beach, Calif. His primary responsibilities at Norland include both customer service and applications engineering for bottling water equipment, plant layout design and support. Swancara graduated from Humboldt State University with a bachelor’s degree in wildlife management. Meanwhile, Siedell’s primary responsibilities include developing and executing the company’s advertising and public relations. Siedell is a graduate of the University of Nebraska with a bachelor’s degree in journalism. He has 30 years experience in the advertising and public relations fields, including over 15 years with marketing and advertising agencies. Norland is a designer and manufacturer of water purification and bottling systems equipment used by commercial bottlers.  

Novazone hires 2 managers
Novazone Inc., of Livermore, Calif., named Marc Scanlon to regional accounts manager for the United States and Canada. He was formerly Midwest region sales manager at Aquafine Corp. He has been involved in water, air and process purification and treatment since 1987. In addition, the company appointed Jim Leung as western U.S. regional accounts manager. Novazone designs, sells and services ozone solutions for water, food and air.

NSF welcomes 2 new VPs
Ann Arbor, Mich.-based NSF International appointed Kristen Reimink and Lori Bestervelt, Ph.D., to senior vice president posts. As senior VP and chief financial officer, Reimink is responsible for all financial matters of the company and implementation of NSF’s acquisition strategy. Previously, she served as VP of administration, finance director and controller. Reimink earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Central Michigan University and is scheduled to get her master’s degree in business administration this month from the University of Michigan. As senior VP and chief technical officer, Bestervelt is responsible for laboratory operations and new laboratory technology for company product certification programs. She continues to serve as president of NSF’s Toxicology Group LLC. She holds a bachelor’s degree in microbiology/immunology, a master’s degree in nutritional biochemistry, and a doctorate degree in toxicology from the University of Michigan. Meanwhile, the company promoted Yoo-Mee Kim Tong to finance director. She will be responsible for all financial and accounting activities at the company including issuing financial statements, managing budgets and ensuring internal controls. Tong has worked at NSF for four years. Previously, she served as accountant, senior accountant and controller. Tong holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of Michigan.

Giant makes manager changes
Rick Kelly was appointed national sales manager for consumer products at Little Giant Pump Co., of Oklahoma City, Okla. Previously, he was national accounts manager of consumer products. Meanwhile, Tracy Thomsen was named national sales manager of commercial/industrial products at the company. Prior to this, Thomsen was Little Giant’s national sales manager for consumer products. The company’s comprehensive line of pumps includes wastewater, sump, effluent and sewage, condensate, magnetic drive, and utility and pump products. They are sold through plumbing, HVAC and industrial distribution and other international outlets.

Paice gets top post at IMS
Innovative Medical Services (IMS), of El Cajon, Calif., announced the appointment of Mike Paice as president of the company’s Nutripure Water Treatment Division. Previously, he was president of Sharp Water Inc., a division of Chesapeake utilities (see May 2001 People). Before joining Sharp, Paice served as general manager for USFilter/Culligan, of Las Vegas, where he was responsible for operations, the acquisition of two additional water companies, marketing and operational transitions, and the management of three retail stores. From 1985-1997, he owned Rayne Water/Crystal Bottled Water, an independent water conditioning and treatment company in Las Vegas. He graduated from the University of Kentucky with a bachelor’s degree in business and marketing. IMS is a biosciences company that develops and markets technology-based products involving water purification/treatment, pest control and anti-microbial applications.

Ask the Expert

Monday, October 21st, 2002

UV & lake water

Question: I would like to know how effective ultraviolet (UV) technology is for treating lake water. In our cottage, the water is supplied by the lake (tap, shower, etc.). We have been told that we basically have two choices for making our water drinkable—either digging a well or using UV technology. What are your thoughts on both alternatives? Would the UV provide us with truly safe water to drink?

Geneviève Macaulay
Ottawa, Ontario

Answer: It’s not clear from your email as to whether or not your problem is related to microorganism contamination, which is more likely in surface water than groundwater. If it is, however, ultraviolet should work effectively provided that the water is adequately filtered to remove suspended solids and the UV unit is sufficiently maintained. There are several manufacturers of high quality systems that could be of help to you in this application. We would suggest you check our online Buyer’s Guide, which provides an extensive list of UV equipment suppliers (see www. wcponline.com). Let us know if we can be of further help.

No fluoride, no RO

Question: I want either a whole house or an undercounter water filtration system that filters not only lead, chlorine and the usual household concerns, but also fluoride. And I want the system to be a direct line system, not a tank system, e.g., not a reverse osmosis system. I realize that the price may be relatively expensive. Can you please direct me to someone?

Philip McGarry
Sunnyvale, Calif.

Answer: Activated carbon filters will readily take out chlorine, and they often contain special adsorbents to remove lead and other specific heavy metals. For removal of fluoride, if you chose not to use a reverse osmosis system, you can use a special adsorbent resin to accomplish this, such as activated alumina. The problem with using any of these adsorbents is that you can never be sure when they quit working. Your local water treatment dealer should be able to supply you with these systems.

Extra oomph for spring water?

Question: Do companies such as Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water use additives to make their water taste better? If so, can you cite this fact?

Ryan B. Rodriguez
San Francisco

Answer: To directly answer your question, no, spring water companies do not use any additives whatsoever to enhance the taste. As a matter of fact, these companies bottling spring water go out of their way to ensure the total dissolved solids (TDS) level is consistent with that of the spring.  Quality control personnel at the bottling facility often perform TDS comparison tests hourly with the source and final product to ensure consistency. The IBWA Model Code of the International Bottled Water Association is very strict when it comes to spring water and how it is to be collected and bottled.

Aggressive RO water

Question: I have been told that a reverse osmosis system for a complete residential home installation would eat out the piping because of the very active water after it leaves the RO unit. Is this fact or fiction? What are the scientific facts on this subject? I have galvanized piping. Should I worry or should I not? That is the big question.

Lee Noga

Answer: Your information is correct, to a de-gree. RO water is very aggressive. This means that it has a negative saturation index and may dissolve carbonates deposited on pipe walls. It has low pH and is hence acidic and can over time corrode piping systems. Generally, though, this isn’t a problem for household systems. Point-of-use undersink units overcome the problem by use of plastic tanks and tubing. If you’re considering a whole house system, it might be worth talking to the supplier about how he intends to overcome the potential corrosion problem.

Global Spotlight

Monday, October 21st, 2002

In an Aug. 1 press release, Charlotte, N.C.-based Celgard Inc. announced Membrana GmbH, of Wuppertal, Germany, was acquired by Polypore Inc. and merged with Daramic and Celgard. Membrana will align with the Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactor and Celgard Hollow Fiber business units of Celgard. 💧

Pall Corp., of East Hills, N.Y., said its new Septra CB (Crypto Barrier) membrane water filtration system is being used to provide 3.5 to 4 million more gallons of drinking water a day to drought-stricken Roanoke, Va. The city’s main water source, Carvin’s Cove Reservoir, is currently at 30 percent  capacity, its lowest point in 55 years. 💧

Katherine Holt, of Williamsburg, Va., won the International Stockholm Junior Water Prize. She was awarded $5,000 and a crystal sculpture at a ceremony on Aug. 13 in Stockholm. Holt’s project included a scientific and business analysis of introducing Asian oysters to clean Chesapeake Bay. 💧

Austria’s BWT reported earnings for the first half of 2002 increased 7.8 percent over the same period last year. 💧

On July 29, GLI International (formerly known as Great Lakes Instruments) relocated from Milwaukee to Loveland, Colo., and integrated into the Hach Company—a subsidiary of the Danaher Corp. GLI’s toll-free number remains (800) 454-0263. 💧

Germany-based WEDECO AG Water Technology reported revenues rose 80.9 percent in the first six months of this year vs. the same period in 2001. 💧

Calgon Carbon Corp., of Pittsburgh, announced Engineered Solutions Group will provide UV disinfection equipment for the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant in Waterloo, Canada. In other news, Calgon Carbon reported second quarter sales at $67.5 million—a decrease of $7.4 million (10 percent) during the same period last year.  💧

France-based Danone, a supplier of mineral water, posted a first half net loss of $624 million in 2002, mainly due to charges reflecting a decline in the value of its assets in emerging market operations. The loss compares with a profit of $372 million in the first half of last year. 💧

Microbiologist Harry Ridgway, Ph.D., was named the ninth recipient of the National Water Research Institute’s Clarke Prize at a June 20 ceremony. Ridgway was the research director at the Orange County Water District in Fountain Valley, Calif. He has pioneered significant studies on membrane technology. Last year’s winner was Joan Rose of the University of South Florida. 💧

Aubryn International Inc., of Upland, Calif., is planning to expand its spring water distribution to the European market, and is currently seeking a European distributor. 💧

In late July, ITT Industries Inc., of White Plains, N.Y., acquired Svedala Robot B.V., a manufacturer of submersible pumps and pump systems used in wastewater applications. Robot is expected to generate annual revenues of about $10 million for ITT. 💧

Waterpik Technologies, of Fort Collins, Colo., reached an agreement with Glo Germ Co. Intl., of Moab, Utah, to sell Waterpik’s Aquia sanitizing system through commercial channels such as the food service, day care and healthcare industries. 💧

States fight back against legislation
A few states and the WQA were involved in fighting legislation that could potentially hinder the business practices of the POU/POE industry. Here is a quick overview, courtesy of the association.

In Idaho, legislation is set for next year that would require all new housing to be looped for water softeners. The proposal came from the state’s plumbing board chief. The plumbing code exempts home installers, but local agencies won’t issue them permits. Meanwhile, Kentucky’s health director withdrew a brine regulation so he could get the rest of his regulatory package passed before a joint Senate/House committee. Carlyn Meyer, WQA government affairs representative, and Steve Emery, representing Pewee Valley, appeared before the committee to protest proposed legislation that would have banned water softener discharge into septic systems. The regulation was picked up by WQA’s state tracking service two weeks before it was to be finalized. WQA has also been spending time assisting New Hampshire dealers with advice as they try to stop proposed regulations requiring installers to have plumbing licenses. The state’s first meeting was in May and no follow-up meeting had been scheduled by early August. The Texas WQA filed a petition with the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission to amend a regulation passed last year that would prohibit brine discharge into septic tanks. The amendment calls for installation of demand-initiated regeneration equipment and puts certain limits on water flows. West Virginia has taken preliminary steps toward recommending a regulation to ban water softener discharge into septic tanks. The WQA has sent the state’s health department technical reports and a letter opposing this latest proposal. The state has yet to respond.

In late August, the Wisconsin Department of Commerce formally approved a system for sizing POE water treatment devices such as softeners, iron filters, etc., that can be used as an alternative to current sizing requirements contained in the Wisconsin Uniform Plumbing Code. The approval is based on data taken from a study commissioned by the WQA, Analysis of Indoor Peak Demands in 60 Selected Single-Family Homes, and conducted by Aquacraft Inc., Water Engineering & Management and an alternate sizing system application filed by the Wisconsin WQA. The POE water treatment device alternate sizing method is valid through August 2007. The Wisconsin Plumbing Code Council may consider 2003-2004 amendments to the state’s plumbing code to permanently include the alternate sizing method.

IBWA joins 2003 Food Expo as sponsor of joint conference
The International Bottled Water Association is the newest co-sponsor of the Worldwide Food Expo on Oct. 29-Nov. 1, 2003, in Chicago. The expo is the premier showcase of processing, packaging, equipment, ingredients and services for the global food and beverage industry. More than 30,000 industry leaders from 150 countries as well as 1,200 exhibitors are expected to be part of the largest North American display of food industry suppliers in one location. In addition, nearly 50 educational workshops will emphasize new technologies in the food and beverage industries. This year, the IBWA will feature its exhibits in the show’s new bottled water pavilion.

County finds use for sewage
Following the lead of Singapore (see Newsreel in September 2002 issue) and Los Angeles, the Orange County Water District is collaborating with the Orange County Sanitation District to build a $600 million sewage-purification system, reported The Wall Street Journal in its Aug. 15 issue. When completed over the next 20 years, the system is expected to be the largest of its kind in the world. The new system will bring the wastewater up to drinking water standards. After treatment, the sewage water will be pumped into an immense groundwater basin that serves the drinking and household needs of about two-thirds of the county’s three million residents. Orange County officials say the treated water is likely to be enough to fulfill the thirst of the 600,000 new residents projected for the area over the next two decades. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the main technology being utilized in the recycling process. This is how it works—first, the sewage water runs through a microfilter to remove suspended particles. Next, it’s squeezed through an RO membrane to ferret out any remaining microscopic contaminants such as virus and bacteria. Finally, it’s exposed to ultraviolet light to destroy any other microorganisms that might have escaped before being piped back into the ground. Still, the cost is too high, the plan’s critics complain.

AWWA, hospital launch guide
The American Water Works Association, of Denver, and the Arnot Ogden Medical Center, of Elmira, N.Y., launched in August an online resource to provide medical professionals with critical information to assist physicians in better diagnosing symptoms of waterborne diseases in patients. The online reference guide, “Recognizing Waterborne Disease and the Health Effects of Water Pollution,” provides a source of educational materials and preparedness resources to help physicians recognize and treat waterborne disease and the health effects of acute and chronic exposure to water pollution. Some of the guide’s benefits include the ability to diagnose and treat waterborne disease with a higher level of accuracy; access to educational tools providing treatment and prevention options; easy-to-access information in a user-friendly format, and seamless, integrated material in a centralized location.

Survey: 2 in 5 store water
Only 42 percent of Americans store water for drinking and personal hygiene as a precaution for possible emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, fires, storms or natural or man-made incidents, according to a survey of 1,018 adults by Wirthlin Worldwide. The survey was conducted for the International Bottled Water Association. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration hasn’t established a shelf life for bottled water. IBWA recommends that consumers should store bottled water in sealed containers at room temperature or cooler, out of direct sunlight, and away from solvents and chemicals.

Studies ask: How much water is too much?
Drinking lots of water can significantly reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, according to researchers at Loma Linda (Calif.) University. A team, led by Jacqueline Chan, Ph.D., found that healthy people who drink five glasses of water a day have only half the risk (or less) of fatal coronary heart disease, compared with those who drink less than two glasses per day. Furthermore, water from carbonated, coffee-based or alcoholic beverages don’t count toward intake levels. Neither total fluid intake nor intake of other fluids combined showed reduced risk. Instead, heavy consumption of coffee, tea, juice, milk and alcohol was associated with a 46 percent increase in heart attack risk. The investigation involved more than 20,000 participants. The results were published in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Meanwhile, Dr. Heinz Valtin, of Dartmouth Medical School, has researched the topic and maintains that 64 ounces a day (eight, 8-ounce glasses per day—a longstanding recommendation from the National Research Council’s Food and Nutrition Board) may cause some people to suffer from “water intoxication” by overloading their kidneys. This phenomenon has been seen in athletes, Ecstasy users and even healthy people. Furthermore, Valtin’s research says most of the 64 ounces can be obtained in prepared foods that are rich in fluids. Items like juice, milk, soda and coffee are almost entirely water and may be reasonable substitutes for glasses of water, he claims. The Food and Nutrition Board is currently reviewing daily water consumption. Its recommendations should be released in March. The board will also look at how, if at all, water intake affects certain health outcomes from kidney stones to heart ailments, and whether the fluid in foods such as fruits and vegetables is an adequate source of water.

STS picks up InfraTech
Severn Trent Services (STS), of Fort Washington, Pa., acquired InfraTech International, of Camp Hill, Pa.—a provider of specialty wastewater system rehabilitation and assessment services—from ADS Corp. InfraTech has 40 employees and annual revenues of $4 million. In other news, STS was awarded a contract to supply its polymer feed equipment to the City of Chattanooga, Tenn., and the Moccasin Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant. It currently treats the wastewater of more than 220,000 residents. Meanwhile, Bayoxide E33, an adsorption media developed by Bayer AG for use in Severn Trent Services’ SORB 33 arsenic removal system, received NSF Standard 61 certification in late July. Additionally, the company was awarded contracts with the City of Flagstaff, Ariz., to supply ultraviolet disinfection and chlorine disinfection equipment for the Lake Mary Water Treatment Plant Filter and Disinfection Improvements Project.


ADI provides group training
ADI International Inc., of Frederic-ton, New Brunswick, Canada, hosted a delegation from Bangladesh to provide training on specialized water treatment techniques. Global Village, of Dhaka, Bangladesh, sent four of its directors to tour ADI’s facilities and train on new technology. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, is severe. Global Village asked for ADI’s help in training several of their key people in detecting arsenic in water and methods to remove it. The latter company has conducted research and development into arsenic detection and treatment since 1984. In March 2001, ADI was granted a patent for its removal technology, and received verification of its process by Environment Canada, under the Environmental Technology Verification Program.

Cities use UV from Trojan
Trojan Technologies Inc., of Canada, received a purchase order to supply ultraviolet equipment to the largest municipal UV drinking water installation in the world. The facility, to be built by the City of Seattle, will treat up to 180 million gallons of water a day. It will serve nearly one million people when it becomes operational in 2004. In other company news, Trojan was selected as the UV equipment supplier for the drinking water treatment facility of the City of Lethbridge, Ontario. The project calls for the delivery of five UV units, and has a value of approximately $1.1 million. When it becomes operational in September 2003, the plant will treat up to 40 million gallons of drinking water a day and serve a population of 75,000.

Cambodia gets Swiss water
Blue Industries Inc., of Geneva, Switzerland, started shipping drinking water purification systems to Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The initial shipment included 15 of the company’s P6 Drinking Water Treatment Plants, which are able to process 1,500 gallons per day, and two P60 Drinking Water Treatment Plants, which are able to process 15,000 gallons per day. A second shipment is scheduled for mid-September. The company currently serves customers in China, Thailand, Cambodia and the Middle East, and is conducting on-site demonstrations in Africa. In other related news, the company announced it has opened a special manufacturing facility in Bangkok, Thailand. The facility will supply water filtration systems based on the company’s technologies to Thai shrimp producers. The Thai facility shipped its first products in late June. Blue Industries also offers drinking water processing facilities to end users. Meanwhile, the company also entered into a distribution and representation agreement with General Regulation, an electrical and communications equipment distributor based in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Africa. General Regulation will be the exclusive distributor for Blue’s drinking water purification and treatment products in Ivory Coast, a country with a population of 19 million.

Water from nuclear plants?
Chinese scientists have developed atomic reactors to provide heating and desalinate seawater by burning used fuel from nuclear power stations under normal pressure. The only industrial-scale nuclear reactor that serves to desalinate and provide electricity was built in 1973 by the former Soviet Union and is located in Kazakhstan. It operates at 520 megawatts to generate electricity and at 80 megawatts to produce 80,000 cubic meters per day of potable water. In Japan, 10 desalination plants are linked to pressurized water reactors and also operate for electricity generation. In trials, they have produced between 1,000 cubic meters and 3,000 cubic meters a day of potable water. Other countries like India, Pakistan, Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt and Algeria are planning or considering nuclear desalination plants.

Chlorine blocks E. coli?
Three years of research in Alberta, Canada, has uncovered a new potential option to keep E. coli 0157:H7 pathogen away from cattle and reduce public food safety concerns, according to the Canadian Water Quality Association. The study, supported by the Canada/Alberta Beef Industry Development Fund, found adding chlorine to drinking water for cattle may reduce exposure to the pathogen, cutting it off before it can enter the food chain. The study was done in conjunction with the Veterinary Infectious Disease Organization and Washington State University.

Makers of water look abroad
With the growing demand for bottled water overseas, San Diego-based Bio-Hydration Research Lab Inc.—makers of Penta bottled water—is developing plans for its international plant and distribution that may include licensing of the company’s water purification process. The water is presently sold in more than 2,500 natural health food stores in the United States.

USFilter receives go-ahead
Vivendi Water Systems/USFilter will supply the ultrapure water system at Singapore’s Pasir Ris Wafer Fab Park. Meanwhile, USFilter’s John Meunier Products received a $2.1 million project with Halton, Ontario, for treating water and wastewater at the Burlington Water Purification Plant. The U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Texas also approved the acquisition of EarthLiquids by USFilter Recovery Services Inc. EarthLiquids specializes in the collection and management of used oil and oily wastewaters. Its parent company, The EarthCare Company, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection earlier this year. In addition, USFilter acquired Hydrotech AB, of Vellinge, Sweden, a leading international manufacturer of water purification technology that specializes in drum and disc filtration systems. As part of the acquisition, the Hydrotech business will be integrated into USFilter’s Kruger Products, of Cary, N.C. In other news, Houston-based USFilter Operating Services Inc. was awarded a 10-year contract worth $7 million from Five Star Water Supply District, which serves central Alabama. The district supplies water to approximately 40,000 residents in the towns of Plattsville, Holtville, Tri-Community, Wetumpka and Millbrooke. Also, Chatham-Kent Public Utilities Commission, of Ontario, Canada, awarded USFilter a $1.7 million contract to provide the first microfiltration plant to treat water from Lake Erie. The system will provide 6 million gallons of water per day to over 10,000 residents in the Ontario area. In addition, USFilter Operating Services Inc. acquired MCS Technologies, a manufacturer in the refinery waste separation and treatment services market based in Corpus Christi, Texas.


Monday, October 21st, 2002

Ozone shock & biofilm control

Dear Editor:
Aloha, I’m quality control manager/microbiologist for a small natural spring water bottler. I’m having a problem with bacteria regrowth on HPC plates several days after bottling. I recall reading an article on ozone shock and would like to read more on it to see if that is what is happening here. I started my search at www.wcponline.com, but I cannot find the article. I’m not sure if it was in WC&P or one of the other trade journals I get here. I guessed at WC&P because I do read it most. Any information on ozone shock?

Bob Betts
Hawaiian Natural Water
Pearl City, Hawaii

Editor’s response: We do feature an article on ozone and biofilm reduction in our current issue by Ronald Barnes and Kevin Caskey (see “ Using Ozone in the Prevention of Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Scaling,” WC&P, October 2002, p. 70), but I’m not familiar with the exact article we may have published in the past to which you refer. Scouring our archives, here’s a list that may fit the bill.

APRIL 2002
“In the Aquarium with Ozone: A Matter of Living Clarity?” by John M. Overby
• “Measurement of Dissolved Ozone and the Development of a New Meter,” by Lawrence B. Kilham
• “Ozone in Spring Water: A Bottler’s Choice,” by Dale Mork
• “A Brief History of the Role of Ozone in Water Bottling,” by L. Joseph Bollyky, Ph.D., P.E.
• “Ozone as the Cure: Instrumentation & Reduction of Bromate Formation in Bottled Water,” by Rick Hess
• “Viewpoint: Perrier Restricts Ozone Use Awaiting Better Control Options,” by Carlos David Mogollón, WC&P Executive Editor
• “Ozone Generation Technology: Past, Present & Future,” by Dale Mork
MARCH 2001
• “Ozone: Water Stores Take Advantage of an Alternative Disinfectant,” by Roger Nathanson
• “Ozone & Government Regulations: An Update,” by Paul K. Overbeck
• “Ozone: Treatment Applications for POU/PE and Small Water Systems,” by Thomas P. Palkon, CWS-VI
• “Expect ANSI/NSF Ozone Generator Standard in 2002,” by Carlos David Mogollon, WC&P Executive Editor
• “In-Transit Ozone Water Treatment Systems: Necessity is the Mother of Invention,” by G. Scott Fahey, P.E.
• “Catalytic Destruction of Ozone: A Cost-Effective Approach to Controlling Off-Gas Emissions,” by Joseph Sigmund

You can search further on your own as far back as 1998. In addition, I might recommend you contact the International Ozone Association for more information on the topic. Rip Rice, the IOA founder, and Paul Overbeck, a member of the technical committee, have both written for us in the past; and Overbeck was a member of the WC&P Technical Review Committee (1998-2000). Hope that helps.

Flush with Pride: How Pumps Saved the ‘Seventh Inning Stretch’ in New Baseball Stadium

Monday, October 21st, 2002

By David Lazar

Summary: A stinko was averted—it’s new World Series time. When Pittsburgh’s professional baseball team needed a new facility, designers quickly went about providing for the masses of people to attend games. Part of the plan was directed at the new ballpark’s water supply system. Careful not to repeat past mistakes, an advanced pumps system was installed.

 The new PNC Park baseball stadium for the Pittsburgh Pirates requires a great deal of water—especially for the bathroom breaks during the “seventh-inning stretch.” To meet these water supply demands, the builders of the stadium turned to Bell & Gossett to help design and supply the pumps system.

Best ballpark in America
After spending 30 years in Three Rivers Stadium—an antiquated and dull cookie-cutter stadium shared by the NFL’s Pittsburgh Steelers—the Pirates have a new home. PNC Park opened in spring 2001. The ballpark reflects a trend toward building inner-city stadiums that become part of the urban scene as in the early days of baseball. PNC Park has just over 38,000 seats, making it the most intimate of any of the newly constructed parks. The playing surface has natural grass and asymmetrical fences with the Pittsburgh skyline serving as an outfield backdrop.

PNC Park is the first ballpark with a two-deck design to be built in the United States since Milwaukee’s County Stadium was completed in 1953. Because of its design, the highest seat is just 88 feet from the field, giving every fan in the park an ideal sight line.

Even though the ballpark was designed to provide the feel of a nostalgic stadium, its facilities and support systems are squarely in the 21st century. Other features of the new facility include 69 luxury suites with their own concourse level, club seating at both the field and mezzanine levels with their own respective lounges, many concession stands, an outfield barbecue pit, a restaurant with a party deck that overlooks both the playing field and the city, and an outdoor river terrace and river walk.

Nostalgia & modern systems
All of these facilities—as well as the modern locker rooms and the many restroom facilities—need a reliable water supply. As Larry Larkin, of Thermoflo Equipment Co.—a Bell & Gossett distributor—recalled, “The contractor was looking to do some creative engineering on this project. We reviewed the original specifications and made some changes. We ended up recommending a skid-mounted Bell & Gossett Pressure Booster powered by three B&G 1,000 gallon per minute (gpm) pumps.” According to Larkin, the benefits of the skid-mounted system are that the pumping system is piped and wired in the factory, which saves labor and time on the construction site.

Larkin noted that the construction schedule of this new stadium made it a fast-track job: “There was not a lot of floor space for the equipment, so we were able to help the plumbing contractor locate some of the components up above so that they were able to fit everything into the equipment rooms.”

Pulling the levers
With the B&G booster package supplying total water supply for the stadium, there was some rigorous testing ahead. According to Larkin, testing the ability of the water supply system is a traditional procedure in all new stadiums. Prior to the facility opening, the health department of Allegheny County wanted to witness this test.

On March 11, 2001, more than 170 volunteers showed up at PNC Park for what was a very “draining experience,” said Larkin. They were all dispatched to simultaneously hit the flush valves of all public restroom facilities located at the ballpark and turn on the concession stands to see if the B&G pressure booster could handle the peak loads for water supply.

Called the “Super Flush,” the volunteers were recruited by Limbach Company, the stadium’s plumbing contractor. They were escorted by company officials in groups to various levels of the new ballpark. When they arrived at their appointed stations and the signal was given, the volunteers reached out and flushed and flushed again on command from the test coordinators.

About 600 public toilets and 400 urinals were flushed almost simultaneously and repeatedly for 20 minutes while the amount of water being drawn into the PNC Park system soared to a rate of more than 2,000 gpm.

In the meantime, engineers and the manufacturer’s representatives gathered to watch pressure gauges and digital readouts as the three pumps responsible for making the system work turned on and off as needed.

Water pressure to all facilities, except the restaurants, in the ballpark should be about 100 pounds per square inch gauge (psig), engineers said. As the pressure dropped, the pumps began to turn on one by one to send it back up again. Bill Larkin, also of Thermoflo, was observing the experiment from up on the fifth-floor concourse and recording pressures at that point. The pressure ranged from between 60 to 80 psig at all the measured fixtures.

Passing the test
When it was over, officials pronounced the test a success. Bill Larkin said, “We recorded a peak output of 2,200 gallons per minute during the first test, and 2,250 gallons per minute during the second test. The system draw was maintained for just over two minutes and the pressure booster package kept up.” Operating all three pumps simultaneously, the booster package has a total capacity of approximately 3,000 gpm.

”The test had two purposes,” said Jim Youden of Dick Corp./Barton Malow, the stadium general contractor. They were to determine whether the sewer system was capable of handling the outflow, and if the in-house pumps could maintain water pressure to the upper levels of PNC Park.

Authorities learned the value of testing when the old Three Rivers Stadium opened in 1971. During the sold-out opening game, everything went well until the seventh-inning stretch when a lot of the beer and soda pop consumed during the earlier innings took their natural effect on the fans. During that peak period, there was no water above the second level. The problem was traced to one of the main waterlines feeding the stadium, which hadn’t been turned on.

PNC Park is the fifth home of the Pittsburgh Pirates since their inception in 1887. Some of the additional amenities of the stadium include a Pirates Hall of Fame and a life-size replica of a pirate ship, which contains virtual reality pitching and batting cages, rope courses and other games. These give parents and their children another form of recreation besides attending baseball games. The Roberto Clemente Bridge—named after the Hall of Fame Pirate right fielder—next to the ballpark is closed on game days to allows fans to walk from downtown Pittsburgh across the river to the ballpark.

PNC Park opened on April 9, 2001, when the Pirates played against the Cincinnati Reds. Unfortunately, the season opener resulted in an 8-2 loss to the Reds. Thanks to Bell & Gossett’s pumps and control systems, however, the fans had a steady and reliable supply of water during the game.

About the author
David Lazar is a freelance writer who works for ITT Fluid Technology. The article is reprinted here with the permission of UK-based Minett Media (www.minettmedia.co.uk). For more information on Bell & Gossett, see website: www.bellgossett.com

How POU Devices Reduce Arsenic: Tracking Three Demonstration Studies

Monday, October 21st, 2002

By P. “Regu” Regunathan, Ph.D., and Joseph F. Harrison, P.E., CWS-VI

Summary: Recently, POU treatment was touted as a feasible approach to meeting the new arsenic MCL by the USEPA. This has opened the door to many opportunities for the water treatment industry. Three studies are currently in progress that will go a long way in determining what approaches fit best for small system consumers.

Point-of-use/point-of-entry (POU/POE) devices are used for reducing contaminants in drinking water. Traditionally, aesthetic improvement of water, such as reducing chlorine, choloramines, total dissolved solids (TDS) and several trace organics, has been the main focus of this market segment. Still, that focus has been changing toward addressing low levels of health-related contaminants—reduced by POU units—that include lead, protozoan cysts, trihalomethanes, and many different organic compounds. Recently, several manufacturers have pursued arsenic reduction with POU devices.

Traditional POU units have been made available to consumers through water treatment dealers, distributors, mass merchandisers and discount department stores. Consumers seek these devices voluntarily based on an understanding of their needs and desires to improve the taste of drinking water and/or to reduce trace contaminants that may be present in their water supplies.

New opportunities and requirements
In 1996, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was amended to allow public water systems to install POU or POE devices to achieve compliance with National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) as determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). These amendments regulate the use and operation of POU/POE to achieve compliance with a maximum contaminant level (MCL) standards as follows:

  • POU treatment may not be used for compliance with microbial MCL requirements,
  • POU and POE units must be owned, controlled and maintained by the water system or by a dealer hired by the water system; responsibility for operation and maintenance of the system stays with the water system in either case,
  • The units used must have mechanical warnings incorporated to notify customers of operational problems, if any; i.e., alarm, light or shut-off mechanisms must be part of each POU/POE system, and
  • POU units selected must have been independently tested and certified per the protocols of product standards issued, if any, by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

The USEPA, based on these amendments, recently acknowledged the use of POU for decentralized water treatment by public water systems as a means of complying with the new arsenic standard of 10 parts per billion, or ppb (see Newsreel this issue). This arsenic MCL, which was lowered from the previous 50 ppb, is expected to impact more than 3,000 small communities around the country, and the cost of achieving compliance by central treatment is likely to be too high for many of these communities. It has been projected that POU devices, which would treat only drinking water, installed in each household of these communities may be less costly and more affordable for these systems.

New challenges
To successfully implement a POU strategy, however, four logistical challenges must be met:

  1. Regular and routine access to the treatment units inside the houses must be ensured. Local ordinances may be needed assuring such access and agreement to use these devices by all homeowners.
  2. New procedures for installation, maintenance and management of the home units by the water system of the community or the commercial service provider under contract may have to be developed.
  3. Monitoring and compliance requirements that fit the needs of such decentralized treatment approach need to be fully defined.
  4. Focused procedures aimed at public outreach and participation in this new approach will have to be developed.

The USEPA has issued two guidance documents to specifically discuss the centrally managed POU compliance strategy. The first one, released last March, discusses and analyzes the implementation issues. Meanwhile, the second one released three months later, “Draft Guidance for Implementing a Point-of-Use or Point-of-Entry Treatment Strategy for Compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act,” discusses in more detail the issues related to access, ordinance, ANSI standards, certification issues and monitoring approaches.

Three different projects are now under way to demonstrate field feasibility of POU approaches for compliance with the standard and answer, in practical terms, the questions related to access, public education, participation, maintenance, monitoring, and costs associated with different tasks. The American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) has funded two of these projects and the other has been funded by the USEPA.

Demonstration studies
1. AWWARF Projet #2730—Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry Implementation Feasibility Study for Arsenic Treatment:

 The project was awarded to Nara-simhan Consulting Services, of Phoenix. The study evaluates some of the most promising POU and POE treatment alternatives for arsenic removal including reverse osmosis (RO) and adsorption to iron-alumina and granular ferric hydroxide media. These technologies have been evaluated in several locations, namely, Stage Coach, Nev.; Carson City, Nev.; Unity, Maine; Sun City West, Ariz., and Metro Water, of Tucson, Ariz., over periods ranging from three to six months. The POU and POE units were operated under continuous and intermittent conditions. The intermittent operation was performed to simulate the actual use in homes. In addition to arsenic, other parameters monitored in the treated water included TDS, silica, hardness and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC).

This part of the study has shown consistent removal of arsenic and TDS by the POU RO devices with consistent fluxes being maintained even after operation of six to eight weeks. The run lengths on the POU and POE adsorption systems have been long, but also dependent on the pH of the raw water and presence of other interfering ions such as silica.

The next stage in the study includes 20 units installed in homes in three of these communities and monitored for their performance during normal use by residents. These would include both POU RO and adsorptive media-based units.

Costs for POU RO and POU adsorption are also being developed by researchers in the project, obtaining individual quotations for significant cost items such as housings, membrane elements/adsorption media, and bladder or storage tanks. The treatment costs for POU have been compared with those of POE treatment and are found to be lower in capital and operational costs for small water systems.

 The replacement frequency for media and/or membranes will be determined based on the findings of the field POU/POE tests, consultations with manufacturers, and professional judgment. The findings of this study will be useful for systems that are both impacted by the new arsenic MCL and considering POU/POE treatment approaches. A paper is expected to be presented as a progress report of this study at the 2002 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference on Nov. 10-13.

2. Project funded by USEPA’s Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water and the National Water Research Institute of Fountain Valley, Calif.:

The award was made to NSF International with significant roles involving J. Cotruvo Associates, Regunathan & Associates, and the National Rural Water Association. After a nationwide search, a community of 125 connections and 400 persons in northern California was selected as the demonstration site.

During July/August 2002, commercial POU water treatment devices using activated alumina-based adsorbents were installed at the kitchen sinks in each home, commercial establishments, and on school water fountains. These units have already been tested per the protocols in ANSI/NSF Standard 53 for health effects. They were also tested using water in the community on an accelerated basis to verify their effectiveness locally.

In many respects, new ground is being broken and the numerous technical, operational, management and legal issues must be resolved. Key elements to be examined in the demonstration are:

  • Procedures for installation, maintenance and management of the home units by a community and the commercial service provider under contract to the community,
  • Monitoring unit performance using inexpensive test kits,
  • The useful life and replacement frequency of the treatment cartridges,
  • Certified laboratory compliance analysis requirements,
  • Access to residences for service and compliance monitoring,
  • Community oversight responsibilities,
  • Quantification of capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and many others.

Another area of particular significance is the perception of the consumers of this unusual compliance practice—and their willingness to utilize it.

The systems in the home will be run for 12 months. It’s expected the result will be a detailed practical operational “cookbook” that will provide all information needed by a small community to determine whether or not to select a decentralized POU compliance system, as well as what would need to be known to assure successful sustainable operation.

3. AWWARF Project #2671—Comparison of Conventional and Unconventional Approaches for the Provision of Water:

Stratus Consulting, of Boulder, Colo., has been awarded this research contract. NCS Consulting Services and J. Cotruvo Associates along with Joe Drago, of Kennedy Jenks, and Regunathan & Associates are significant contributors to this study.

This study is aimed at looking at the broad aspect of providing high quality drinking water to consumers by the community water system using conventional and unconventional approaches. The different approaches to be examined include central treatment, POU/POE treatment either for compliance or supplementary purposes, as well as—for similar purposes—bottled water, neighborhood treatment systems, dual distribution and water reuse.
The first phase of this study evaluated several types of POU devices in two large communities, Los Angeles and Contra Costa Water Districts in California. Devices being evaluated are POU RO, POU carbon, POU UV-carbon, POU arsenic media, and faucet-attached carbon filters. These were monitored for effectiveness in reducing several parameters over the last six months and will continue as such for six more months. At the end of this phase, feasibility of this option for compliance or as a supplementary treatment will be examined and reported.

The second phase of the study is to look at the evolving regulatory issues in the future and discuss the possibility of combining several different conventional and unconventional approaches to provide the best quality water to the consumer in an economical manner.

The USEPA’s identification of POU treatment as an acceptable approach for compliance with the arsenic MCL has opened a new opportunity for manufacturers, dealers, certifiers and other service providers of the POU industry. Three independent studies can provide the industry, regulators and the community water systems valuable information to provide good quality water to the consumers at an affordable cost.

About the authors
Dr. “Regu” P. Regunathan has been involved in the water industry for over 34 years. He was the president of Everpure Inc. and vice president of Science & Technology at Culligan prior to retiring and starting a consulting company, Regunathan & Associates in 1999. Regunathan earned his doctorate degree in environmental engineering from Iowa State University. He currently serves as a consultant to NSF International, and consults on technical matters to the Water Quality Association. He can be reached at (630) 653-0387 or email: regu5@aol.com

Joseph F. Harrison is technical director for the Water Quality Association, which is based in Lisle, Ill. He’s a registered professional engineer and holds the WQA’s highest certification, Certified Water Specialist, Level 6. Before joining the WQA in 1990, he was chief of the Safe Drinking Water Branch of  the USEPA’s Region V Office in Chicago.

He holds a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Wisconsin State University and a master’s degree in water resources management from the University of Wisconsin. Harrison can be reached at (630) 505-0160, (630) 505-9637 (fax) or email: jharrison@mail.wqa.org

Air & Water: Interesting Uses for Ozone in the Home

Monday, October 21st, 2002

By Ed Knueve, CWS-VI, and Ted Rich

Summary: Since ozone was first used for treating municipal drinking in Europe over a century ago, information about the technology has emphasized its commercial applicability. This article suggests ozone can be very versatile in residential applications and outlines  more common uses in water treatment as well as lesser-known air purification systems.

The benefits of using ozone in a water treatment system can be maximized by learning as much as possible about the water being treated and knowing the properties and capabilities of ozone. Water treatment professionals should understand what ozone does—and doesn’t do—so it can be applied properly and efficiently with satisfying results.

Problem water
Ozone is one of the more traditional pre-filtration water treatment oxidizers, which also include chlorine, oxygen, potassium permanganate and peroxide. Generally, the use of ozone can be considered for problem water applications where multiple treatment challenges exist, equipment such as water softeners are doing double duty as iron filters, or existing chlorination systems aren’t meeting expectations in terms of overall water quality.

Ozone effectively oxidizes a variety of waterborne contaminants without leaving an undesirable residual, adding to total dissolved solids (TDS) levels or causing radical shifts in pH. Ozone is used to achieve a number of water treatment goals including disinfection, oxidation of inorganic contaminants like iron and manganese, and oxidation of organic micropollutants.

Ozone may also be effective as a pretreatment to improve the performance of subsequent water treatment processes. For example, ozone’s ability to coagulate particulate matter has been used successfully in modern water treatment plants. The introduction of ozone can have a wide range of secondary effects on coagulation, including improved total organic carbon (TOC) and turbidity removal during subsequent treatment and a decrease in required dosages of the traditional coagulant (see EXTRA).

What it doesn’t do
Ozone isn’t effective in removing such constituents as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfates and nitrates. These are better handled by brine regeneration systems such as cation or anion resins in ion exchange. Small amounts of sodium, arsenic and chlorides are also treated more effectively by reverse osmosis (RO) or distillation.

A typical problem water system—Depending on treatment goals and the type and amount of contaminants to be treated, a typical residential problem water system using ozone will also include a booster pump, contact tank, filter, water softener and an undercounter RO system.

In a typical home system, the water flows from the well through the pressure tank and to the ozone system. A time delay may be included, allowing the ozone generator and circulation pump to run for a specified amount of time after the well pump shuts off so ozone-treated water is always available when the well pump re-starts.

From the ozone system, the water flows through a filter; filter size and configuration are dependent upon water chemistry and flow rate requirements. The water then passes through a water softener and on to the house service lines. Finally, an undercounter RO unit may be installed for all drinking water needs.

Swimming pools & spas
Concerns about both personal health and the environment have prompted a demand for alternatives to the more traditional halogen compounds used for pool and spa water sanitation. Ozone is effective in oxidizing many swimming pool contaminants including bacteria, viruses, soaps, body oils, perspiration and chloramines. Also, in the presence of halogen-type oxidizers like chlorine or bromine, ozone can oxidize ammonia, urea and amino acids (however slowly). Since it also acts as a microflocculant, ozone can actually enhance the performance of the spa or pool filter system, improving the aesthetic quality of the water.

A typical aquatic ozone system—Proper installation is critical to maximizing the benefits of ozone in a swimming pool application. A basic ozone system will include the ozone generator, air preparation, booster pump and ozone injector. A more sophisticated system may also employ an automated chemical controller (to monitor and control pH and ORP, or oxidation-reduction potential), a contact vessel, and an interface device to control the ozone generator. It’s especially important to locate the point of ozone injection downstream of the filter and upstream of the point at which the residual sanitizer enters the return water. This helps minimize the load on the ozone and allows the ozone to do its oxidation work without “fighting” the residual sanitizer.

Since ozone is corrosive to some metals (including copper and iron), careful consideration must be given to the type of plumbing materials used—particularly in retrofit situations on older pools. Also, if the ozone injection point is upstream of the pool’s heater, it should be plumbed into a sidestream that bypasses the heater. Injecting ozone into the coolest possible water enhances its solubility, but sending ozonated water straight into a heater will wreak havoc on internal components.

A properly sized and installed injector is also critical to ozone system performance. For safety and efficiency reasons, most ozone systems work under a vacuum. Using the suction created by a pressure differential across the injector’s venturi, ozone is drawn into the water rather than pushed into it.

Because ozone is a very unstable gas, its half-life is comparatively short. Therefore, the use of a more stable residual sanitizer is recommended for complete swimmer protection; however, the required amount of residual sanitizer required is significantly reduced when ozone is employed as the primary oxidizer.

Other domestic ozone uses
There are a number of other interesting uses for ozone in residential water treatment applications, but most have yet to be commonly accepted. For example, ozone can be used to treat home grey water—wastewater other than sewage such as sink, shower, laundry or dishwasher discharge—that may in turn be used to water lawns, gardens, etc. Such systems may gain popularity as ozone generators become more efficient and less expensive while the cost of potable water (for those tied to municipal water sources) continues to rise. Also, as laws governing wastewater discharge become more stringent, discharge problems play to one of ozone’s greatest strengths—handling organic problems such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reduction and the oxidation of certain pesticides with a minimum of filtration equipment and without adversely affecting water chemistry.

While ozone has shown potential for use in commercial laundries, it hasn’t caught on for home washing machines. The main advantage ozone has demonstrated in commercial applications is in water savings. Fewer rinses are required and during the rinse process, ozone oxidizes bacteria, residual soaps and other contaminants, leaving cleaner fabrics and discharge water.

In the kitchen, ozone can be used to wash fruits and vegetables, sanitize water, clean surfaces, etc. Again, commercial operations are using ozone for produce washing, hard surface cleaning and clean-in-place (CIP) systems as well as water vending machines, water bottling facilities, etc. For home use, appliances are available that allow the user to simply bubble ozone into a kitchen sink for vegetable washing or into a pitcher of water for sanitation. Some home water coolers with built-in ozone systems are also available.

Air treatment
Despite some warnings about exposure to high levels of ozone, the number of air treatment devices using ozone technology has increased significantly in recent years. It’s important to know what the device is capable of delivering in terms of ozone concentration (measured in parts per million or ppm) into the air. Generally, any level below 0.1 ppm is considered non-symptomatic, but higher concentrations can be tolerated. For example, exposure levels up to 1.0 ppm can be non-symptomatic, but only for up to 10 minutes. The 0.1 ppm point seems to be the accepted tolerance level; in fact, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard is 0.1 ppm for a maximum of eight hours in the workplace. Anything beyond that level and, depending on exposure time, symptoms include eye, nose and throat irritation, coughing, headache and shortness of breath (see Table 1).

The primary function of ozone in residential air treatment is the control of odors. It effectively oxidizes the organic or inorganic contaminants that cause the odors—bacon or cooking smells, tobacco, smoke, new paint and carpet fumes, etc. Some air treatment devices combine ozone with ultraviolet (UV) light; the ozone for odor control and the UV light for inactivation of a variety of microorganisms. These devices use UV lamps—one (using 185 nanometers, or nm) produces low concentration ozone, while the other produces a wavelength of UV light (about 254 nm) capable of inactivating certain bacteria, molds, viruses, etc.

Residential air treatment devices can be divided into two general categories—room treatment and whole-house treatment. Simply stated, room treatment appliances are comprised of an ozone generator and a fan, and the fan distributes the ozone throughout the room. Whole-house systems are usually installed on the return side of the home’s HVAC system, using the HVAC fan for air circulation. Room treatment devices are limited in the space they can treat, and the ozone levels can rise in the confined area. Whole-house systems treat more air and do their work in the air ducts. While potential exposure to elevated ozone levels is minimized, opening windows or doors “contaminate” the otherwise closed system.

The applications for ozone are many and span a wide variety of markets. Ozone is a very powerful oxidizer, easy to handle and generally leaves no harmful chemical by-products. At the same time, it shouldn’t be viewed as a cure-all in and of itself for any water or air treatment challenge. To be successfully applied, the water/air treatment professional must understand the properties and capabilities of ozone. Armed with accurate information, the dealer will know what ozone does, how much is required for each application, and how to use it in conjunction with other technologies to provide complete, effective treatment systems.

About the authors
Ed Knueve is vice president and water treatment manager for Knueve & Sons Inc., of Kalida, Ohio. Knueve is a Water Quality Association Certified Water Specialist, Level 6, and has 22 years of experience in water treatment. He can be reached at (419) 532-3699, email: eknueve@knueve.com or website: www.knueve.com

Ted Rich is the marketing director for ClearWater Tech LLC, of San Luis Obispo, Calif. A division of Aquion Partners LLC, the company manufacturers a complete line of mid-sized ozone generators for a variety of water treatment applications. He can be reached at (800) 262-0203, email: trich@cwtozone.com or website: www.cwtozone.com

Using Ozone in the Prevention of Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Scaling

Monday, October 21st, 2002

By Ronald L. Barnes and D. Kevin Caskey

Summary: Bacterial biofilms are a common phenomenon of nature. These clusters of individual bacterium frequently inhabit both inert and living surfaces in a non-pathological manner; however, biofilms are known to be very detrimental in several water treatment applications. The pool and spa industry is certainly no exception.

This article is designed to introduce concepts behind the use of non-dissolved ozone gas against biofilm formation within swimming pools and spas. Additionally, a fundamental introduction into biofilm formation has been included. This detailed description will assist in understanding the arduous task of biofilm prevention. Therefore, the article will begin with an introduction into biofilms and how they apply to pools and spas. Next, it will discuss use of non-dissolved ozone in relation to biofilms.

Bacterial biofilms
In technical terms, bacterial biofilms are highly interactive, ubiquitous bacterial ecosystems consisting of individual bacterium bound to a foreign surface by a complex matrix of extracellular polysaccharides. They can be thought of as “bacterial cities.” Within these cities live groups of bacteria constituting multiple species. Individual bacterium coalesce by linking extracellular polysaccharides on their cell walls.

The polysaccharides equate to dense glue that’s quite cohesive. They form an interconnected matrix of fibers that attach to a multitude of surfaces, hence the ubiquitous nature. These extracellular polysaccharides have additional functions that will be discussed later. At the microscopic level, a bacterial biofilm looks similar to a coral reef (see Figure 1).

Formation and location
Bacterial biofilms can be found in environments ranging from the human mouth to computer chips. For the purposes of this article, the focus will be limited to where they’re found in relation to pools and spas. In theory, a bacterial biofilm can form on a multitude of surfaces in the presence of water. More specifically, bacterial biofilms have the potential to form on inert surfaces that come in contact with circulating water. Additionally, stagnant water is instrumental in exacerbating biofilm formation.

Biofilm formation begins with planktonic (individual) bacterial cells adhering to some type of foreign surface. This initial adhesion of single cells evolves into what has become known as a microcolony (see Figures 2 & 3). Microcolonies are relatively small groups of bacteria that eventually become the biofilms—some visible to the naked eye. The polysaccharides from individual cells gradually weave and interconnect, thus strengthening surface attachment as well as meshing all the planktonic cells together into larger structures.

Polysaccharide chains exhibit chemical properties that make them polar, and thus very “sticky.” This polarity is what leads to surface adhesion and cell cohesion. This is one of the properties that makes biofilms tough to remove. In terms of functionality, polysaccharides do more than glue everything together. Polysaccharides also shape the infrastructure of a biofilm. In fact, the advance science of transmission electron microscopy has confirmed that the majority of a typical biofilm’s matrix constitutes polysaccharides. This also has been confirmed through the investigative process of ruthenium red staining. These complex sugars can be thought of as a “skeleton.”

Polysaccharides form channels that allow the passage and circulation of water throughout the biofilm. This allows for nutritional delivery as well as waste disposal for each bacterial cell. Additionally, the polysaccharide matrix functions as a protective barrier from the external environment. The matrix coats and surrounds the bacteria, thus protecting each cell. This armor, if you will, is tough to penetrate.

Why do bacteria form biofilms?
Why do bacteria form biofilms?As the cliché goes, there is strength in numbers, with bacteria being no exception. Furthermore, bacteria are highly adaptive in terms of survival and vitality. It should also be noted that biofilms are a natural occurrence in nature.

This is the best way for the microorganisms to exist. More specifically, many different types of bacteria function and thrive in symbiotic relationships. This means that potentially competing bacteria coexist in a relationship that benefits both partners. For example, a biofilm can be composed of aerobic (requiring oxygen) and anaerobic (not requiring oxygen) bacteria. Oxygen-requiring bacteria actually form a layer over the non-oxygen-requiring bacteria. Thus, the anaerobic bacteria exist in a low-oxygen microclimate while the aerobic bacteria have a neighbor that’s not competing for the oxygen they require. Meanwhile, they both benefit from the protective nature of a biofilm.

In summary, bacteria collaborate in the form of a biofilm in order to make each other stronger and more viable (although some may compete to survive). In pragmatic biological terms, this comes as no surprise. The science of microbiology has traditionally focused on individual species of bacteria, when in reality most microbial activity in an open ecosystem takes place in the form of a biofilm. Bacteria are genetically equip-ped to undergo the process of biofilm formation. Even individual bacterium floating in a test tube will stick to the side, given the opportunity.

Development variables
The first major variable seen in biofilm formation concerns the ability of a microorganism to adhere to a surface for an adequate period of time. This period must be long enough for the cell(s) to become irreversibly attached. The rate at which the biofilm grows beyond the initial attachment(s) is influenced by several factors. These include both the type and amount of cells that are present at any one time. Additional influences include the flow rate of water, temperature, surface characteristics and the amount of nutrition within the aqueous medium.

Pool and spa industry
What does this mean to the pool and spa industry? The implications are obviously of great magnitude. Combining continuous flow of water and heavy concentrations of circulating organic matter leads to a great potential for biofilm formation in improperly maintained tubs. With biofilm formation comes the possibility of sickness such as Legion-naire’s disease and symptoms related to Psuedo-monas folliculitis infection (headache, fever, nausea, muscle ache). The individual culprits of disease such as these thrive in a biofilm. Further, there’s evidence of systematic detachment by bacterial cells either in a planktonic form or as an actual piece of biofilm. This detachment is intended to create new bacterial biofilms in other locations; however, these detached cells can become circulated among humans and lead to various outbreaks of disease (see Figure 4).

Preventing biofilm formation?
The answer to this question is pretty simple. If biofilms are removed, then bacteria have no place to go. It’s very important to remember that biofilms are simply a survival mechanism of bacteria. Individual bacterium come together as a whole in order to become stronger. A biofilm can be thought of as a home for bacteria. If this home isn’t present, then it’s very difficult for a high number of single species to survive.

It’s important to first understand how ozone works to destroy a biofilm before specific methodologies are introduced here. The extracellular polysaccharides previously discussed are the primary targets for ozone. This has been confirmed through use of transmission electron microscopy.

Upon encountering the polysaccharides of a biofilm, ozone acts like a pair of organic scissors. These scissors cut through the “skeleton” at a rapid pace. Thus, the entire support framework of the biofilm has been destroyed. Additionally, polysaccharides are the same materials used by bacteria to attach to the surface. These are certainly subject to ozonation as well, thus detaching them from the surface. Furthermore, ozone causes lysis—dissolution or disintegration—of individual bacterium. What are left are simply harmless microscopic fragments to be flushed and filtered out.

Increasing ozone efficacy
The previous two paragraphs discussed in general how ozone disrupts a biofilm. There is, however, the potential for ozone to be better utilized when it comes to biofilm disruption. It’s important to remember that a biofilm is like tough, viscous glue that bonds tightly to a chosen surface. Removing it requires substantial penetration and scraping.

Ozone, in a free-gas form, is a very strong oxidant (O3) that reaches a biofilm in a much higher concentration than many other potential disinfectants, such as chlorine. A biofilm is very hydrophilic, making it a very watery substance. This property, in addition to the highly polar polysaccharides, makes a biofilm an easy target for ozone. Therefore, it’s advantageous to expose the circulation routes of water to gaseous ozone. This would involve temporarily shutting off the water supply. Furthermore, effective methods of circulating gaseous ozone will need to be introduced. This doesn’t mitigate the more traditional use of ozone as water cleaner, but the concept is designed to meet a new requirement in pool and spa maintenance. The increased awareness of biofilms has brought about a paradigm shift in terms of how to deal with harmful bacteria that grow in recreational water environments, such as pools, spas, hot tubs and water parks.

Biofilms have changed the way in which pool and spa disinfection is viewed. Microorganisms are no longer thought of individually. Biofilms must be included when considering keeping pools and spas safe. Ozone has a proven track record for doing this; however, the use of gaseous ozone must be incorporated into a regular maintenance program. Again, this certainly doesn’t mitigate other maintenance procedures, but the biofilm issue must be addressed.

About the authors
Ronald L. Barnes is founder and CEO of Prozone International Inc. (established in 1977) and Vistek Corp. (launched in 1984). He has a bachelor’s degree in physics and a master’s degree in electronic engineering. Barnes also is a consultant to a number of government agencies and departments (Department of Defense, Department of Interior, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center), the National Spa & Pool Institute, and a number of major corporations (GE, Boeing, United Technology, Lockheed, Ball Corp., Learjet and Beckman). A member of the International Ozone Association and several related organizations, Barnes is also the holder of patents in ozone water treatment, ozone generators,  plasma generators, optical storage scanners, holographic scanners, electrophoresis, laser doppler radars, and an ozone contact lens cleaner. He can be contacted at (256) 533-0215.

D. Kevin Caskey has been a consulting microbiologist for Prozone International and Vistek Corp. since 2001. He has a bachelor’s degree in microbiology. In addition to projects related to the pool and spa industry, his consultation includes cooling tower sanitation and biotechnology. Caskey also works as a research assistant for the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville, Tenn. He can be contacted at: caskeymicro@aol.com

pH Control Systems: Six Options for Small System Operators

Monday, October 21st, 2002

By Joe Novak

Summary: Controlling pH cannot only be crucial to proper water treatment, but also is important in maintaining equipment and distribution systems in just about any application. Here is a general discussion on pH control for water treatment.

Different types of applications require different pH control systems. This article describes six basic types of pH control systems and outlines the operating principles of each. It’s intended to help match applications with the most suitable pH control system.

Control System A
Batch Processing (Discontinuous Input)—This type of control system uses an on/off relay controller for “batch” processing. The system operates as follows:

  1. Process solution is pumped into a tank until full.
  2. Agitation or mixing begins and chemical is added until desired pH is reached. The relay controller switches the chemical addition pump (or solenoid valve) on/off.
  3. Process then flows out or is pumped out of tank.

In this control system, it’s desirable to employ some type of level sensing system to signal when the tank is full and empty, and to lock out the mixer and pH control when the solution is not at the proper level. Also, if mixing is poor, a repeat-cycle timer is recommended.

The resulting off-time of the cycle provides the system extra time to mix and reduce any pH overshoot or movement past the set-point. When sizing the final control element, note that there will be some delay between adding chemical and sensing the resulting pH change. If the final control element is oversized, the system will have unacceptable overshoot. The faster the mixing is, the less the delay and/or overshoot will be.

This simple pH control system has one disadvantage—it doesn’t easily handle a continuous-flow process.

Control System B
Batch Processing (Continuous Input)—This type of control system is very similar to System A, but allows for continuous input. In batch processing applications with continuous input, an on/off relay controller with latching or “deadband” (the area before any action takes place) is required. The deadband will hold the final control element on for a longer time, resulting in smooth operation without rapid cycling.

Control System B doesn’t require as much level control and monitoring as System A, since the reaction tank outlet can be sized large enough and placed in the tank wall to make tank overflow unlikely.

The final control element can be a pump or an on/off valve. Sizing of the final control element is complicated and depends on many factors. This is one situation where a titration curve can be very useful. In many cases, it may be necessary to use two final control elements, each one delivering a different amount of chemical and having a different set point. For example, one valve may deliver 1 gallon per minute (gpm) of caustic below 3 pH and the other may deliver 0.1 gpm of caustic below 4 pH.

Good mixing is very important in these types of systems and the mixer or agitation method shouldn’t be undersized. The retention time of the system (tank volume divided by gpm in-flow) should be greater than 10 minutes. If
it’s much longer, a repeat-cycle timer may reduce overshoot. This type of control system can be fairly accurate, but it generally does not produce smooth outputs. The pH will tend to cycle between levels.

Control System C
Batch Processing (Continuous Input and Delay Time)—This type of control system uses a proportional gain controller with time proportioning (% cycle) output for applications like those of System B, except that the delay time between chemical addition and sensing is at least one minute. This type of situation may occur where the solution flows through a long tank, a trough or a series of tanks.

The time proportioning output is a switch closure that activates a solenoid valve or pump. The controller analog output is fed to an electronic “percent of cycle timer” to electrically adjust the on time from 0 to 100 percent. The time base of the cycle timer is electrically adjustable from a few seconds to a few minutes. The chemical delivery to the system is through a series of “chemical shots.” If the system isn’t receiving enough chemical, the controller output will affect the cycle timer to lengthen the on-time and shorten the off-time.

The cycle time should usually be less than the delay time of the system so that a series of shots are in the tank and gradually mixing. By the time chemical reaches the sensor, it should be mixed enough so that the sensor doesn’t measure large pH variations. The final control element should be sized so that it cannot deliver more than five times the amount of chemical required at the maximum system load.

Control System D
Continuous, On-line Control—This type of control system uses a proportional gain controller with analog output for two general types of pH control where the pH is to be adjusted: a) only slightly, or b) to a value away from 7 pH (less than 4 pH or more than 10 pH). This control system usually consists of these elements:

  1. pH sensor to measure the final product,
  2. Analyzer/controller to provide an analog control signal,
  3. Transducer* to produce a pneumatic signal proportional to the analog control signal,
  4. Pneumatic valve* to deliver reagent to the process, and
  5. Mixing device to be placed between the chemical delivery point and the pH sensor.

* Transducer and pneumatic valve may be replaced by an electrically controlled pump or valve.

Two very important points of this system are the mixing and delay time between adding chemical and sensing the result of the addition. The mixing must be thorough and the delay time should not be more than a few seconds. A long delay time will result in the process pH cycling back and forth through the desired set point.
When solution is flowing through a pipe, an excellent mixing device to consider using is a “static mixer.” This device provides good mixing in a very short time. Injecting chemicals at the mixer input and placing the pH sensor at the mixer output eliminate the two most significant problem areas of this type of system.

An inherent characteristic of this control system is that the actual pH set point used for the controller will not be the same as the desired process pH value. The difference may not be large, but there will be some difference.
If a time delay exists between chemical addition point and sensor, System E described next applies.

Control System E
Continuous, On-line Control with Two-Mode Controller—This type of control system is the same as System D except that it uses a two-mode controller in place of the proportional gain controller. The two-mode controller is much more complex than the proportional gain (one-mode) controller and should be used if the performance of the proportional gain controller is unacceptable.

The integral (reset) function of the two-mode controller will adjust the process to the desired set point if it’s possible. The two-mode controller also has a sample/hold feature to compensate for transit time, allowing it to control a process with up to eight minutes of delay time from chemical addition point to pH sensing point.

Control System F
Hybrid Control—This type of control system uses the two-mode controller of System E with the on/off control element of System C. This hybrid system is recommended for applications:

  • Where accuracy of control is important.
  • Process delay times of one to eight minutes exist.
  • The chemical to be added is abrasive or tends to clog small openings (lime slurry, for example).

For these reasons, an on/off valve is preferred over the proportional valve to avoid erosion of its internal parts and to provide more reliable reagent addition.

Well, there you have it. While this discussion may be broader than some might prefer, it offers a basic overview of options for those requiring application of pH adjustment to their water treatment systems, whatever the reason. Your equipment supplier should be able to provide you with more details on the types of controllers to seek for a specific job. For a better background on pH issues, see EXTRA—Other pH Control Tips.

About the author
Joe Novak is product manager for Hach Company, an analytical products company based in Loveland, Colo. The above information was adapted from a technical series prepared by Joe Novak for GLI International Inc., of Milwaukee, now a Hach Company. This particular article is Application Note No. AN-P2, Rev. 2-201. Hach Company can be contacted at (970) 663-1377 or email: intl@hach.com

Bottled Water: Has It Really Changed?

Monday, October 21st, 2002

By Richard Pellerito

Looking back on almost 30 years in the bottled water industry, I find myself asking, How much has it really changed?

A retrospective
I remember when:        

  • Near the water cooler was the ideal place to tape up company announcements.
  • The customer base was primarily commercial, retail packages were practically nonexistent and the residential market… what residential market?
  • Water coolers came in a variety of shades of mocha tan and, when the cooler manufacturers got “rad” (radical), they boldly added white.
  • The grocery store didn’t have a separate aisle devoted to bottled water, and the only water in a convenience store was a one-gallon bottle with dust on it for refilling your radiator or battery.
  • A five-gallon bottle was made of glass and protected by a wooden crate that had to be hand stacked on the route delivery truck.
  • Bottle washers had more mass and size than a Boston & Maine locomotive.
  • The term “water store” was almost an oxymoron.

King of the road
What hasn’t changed is that the “customer is king” attitude has remained the foundation for the modern bottled water industry.             

It seems that almost everywhere you go today, a water cooler has found its way into the building. I have even seen union contracts that specify bottled water must be provided to all workers. Residential customers outnumber the commercial base by three or even four-to-one in the home and office delivery (HOD) sector of the water cooler business, and the retail segment of bottled water is thriving.

Thankfully, the dreadful mocha tan water coolers have been retired and modern coolers come in a selection of all colors including translucent styles for the high tech Apple Computer crowd. The 50-pound floor model water cooler of the ’80s has been replaced with lighter plastic models. The newest countertop version which I saw at the Canadian Bottled Water Show—a 6 lb., 120v countertop unit—is about the size of a four-slice toaster.

Looking at the retail segment, bottles, bags and containers exist in every shape to market bottled water. Grocery stores have even devoted complete aisles to bottled water products. Water stores have popped up in nearly every state, along with an increased number of vending machines that provide water for customers with their own five-gallon or three-gallon bottles. Both types of bottles are available in recyclable PC, PVC and PET, with or without handles for customer convenience.

The drive to portability
Today’s bottle washers are driven by PLC (programmable logic controller) systems with a variety of in-line monitoring devices. The washers use intricate nozzle spray patterns, multiple stage brushes, pop-up nozzles and other technological advancements to help ensure cleaner bottles. They now come in an array of sizes and speeds, with or without fillers and cappers attached, and practically any configuration you can imagine. Further along in the process, today’s racking systems include robotics and interlocking racking shelves to load and unload bottles. Plant managers must be Certified Plant Operators (CPOs) as required under membership in the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), and almost every facility has its own quality control laboratory for microbiological monitoring.

And, virtually everywhere you look, you see people carrying a bottle of water. At the park or in the office, from the car to the stroller, on a bike, in the subway, on a plane, inside a lunch box or briefcase, a bottle of water is close by wherever you go. This dramatic explosion of the consumers’ thirst for water has reduced consumption of carbonated soft drinks, leading one to wonder if the bottled water industry influenced the consumer’s demand for portable water, or if the consumer led the industry.

Rapid growth
Once the industry made bottled water portable and readily available to consumers it experienced dramatic growth, simultaneously maintaining core industry beliefs. Bottlers have been bringing consumers the same trusted products from sources and businesses for, in some cases, over 100 years. Through the IBWA, the bottled water industry consists of suppliers dedicated to being ahead of the regulators, never compromising the goodwill developed by the industry.

Safety compliance
I recently attended a luncheon where the keynote speaker was Dr. Lester Crawford, deputy commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which has primary regulatory responsibility for bottled water. Dr. Crawford addressed the IBWA Board of Directors and committee members in Washington, D.C., on June 11, 2002. In his remarks, Dr. Crawford stated that the bottled water industry is “probably the most compliant industry regulated by FDA. That’s a remarkable success story… and it demonstrates how they achieve what the law calls a ‘least burdensome’ regulatory relationship with [the FDA].”

“This regulatory relationship,” Dr. Crawford continued, “which certainly qualifies as least burdensome, is based on the fact that, over the years, we’ve found bottled water to be among the safest foods on the market. The high quality of life in our country and the success of your industry are proof that the system works and we’re committed to keep it working.”

Still the same
The key phrase above is “over the years.” Yes, there have been some cosmetic and marketing changes, but the fundamentals of safety, quality and service remain the same:

  • Isn’t the home and office business still the same?
  • Isn’t the relationship between the route salesman and the customer still the most important relationship in the home and office segment?   
  • Isn’t the growth of the water category totally dependent on consumer confidence and trust?

A “yes” to these questions will tell you that basically the fundamental strength of the industry hasn’t changed. As long as we continue to maintain our quest to be “the most compliant” and sustain our continued effort to be a trusted consumer product, we won’t have to change—and that’s a good thing.

As we enter what I believe is the second trimester in this industry, I envision continued growth and success. Everyday consumption of bottled water is no longer a fad; it’s become a way of life. The real fad will be sports waters and enhanced waters. New bottlers will continue to enter the market. New water sources will be developed. New marketing and packaging concepts will be unveiled, and new technology for purification and bottling the product will also be developed. Still, the fundamentals will remain the same.

We are dealing with educated consumers who know what they want, and what to expect from their bottled water, for themselves and their families, and this is also a good thing.

Being involved in this industry for nearly three decades—first as a route driver, then as a manager and now as a supplier—I feel like many who’ve been in this industry most of their working lives. I love it. I’m confident that the industry can continue to maintain and enhance consumer trust in bottled water.

About the author
Rich Pellerito is national sales manager and project engineer with Severn Trent Services based in Fort Washington, Pa. Severn Trent offers a broad range of products and services in the water and wastewater industry, including bottling  equipment and tanks, filtration, RO and sterilization systems. Pellerito has been with Severn Trent, and Universal Aqua Technologies (acquired in 2001), since June 1997, and in the bottled water industry since 1976. A WQA and IBWA member, he’s also on WC&P’s Technical Review Committee. He can be reached at (800) 777-6939 or email: UAT2rp@aol.com

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